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We investigated the functional organization of human auditory cortex using a new chronic microelectrode technique. Tonotopic mapping data was obtained at the single unit level for the first time in humans. All sound-driven units were noted to have frequency-dependent response patterns. The majority of units (73%) demonstrated sharply tuned excitatory(More)
The advent of high-precision magnetic and robotic computer-controlled neurosurgery systems makes it necessary to determine the range of forces that will be encountered by the probes of such devices as they are guided through the brain tissues to intraparenchymal targets. We have measured the penetration forces on 2.5-mm spheres and the drag forces on 3.0-mm(More)
For several decades, important scientific information has been gained from in vivo microelectrode recordings of individual human cerebral cortical neurons in patients with epilepsy. The experimental methods used, however, are technically complex and require a highly skilled intraoperative team. There are also significant experimental time limitations, as(More)
Structured clinical encounter notes offer many advantages compared to free text notes. However, cost and other issues limit their widespread use. At our institution, the electronic medical record (EMR) used by an Internal Medicine practice was designed years ago to utilize structured data. This paper describes a technique to improve the process by which(More)
The pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) guides diagnosis and treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU), but studies have shown that physicians and nurses collectively have inadequate skill in interpreting PAC waveforms. We have developed a Web-based application that provides physicians and nurses with rapid access to relevant PAC-related content for use in(More)
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