Michael Okia

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BACKGROUND The accuracy of malaria diagnosis has received renewed interest in recent years due to changes in treatment policies in favour of relatively high-cost artemisinin-based combination therapies. The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) synthesized by Plasmodium falciparum has been widely advocated to save(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria epidemics remain a significant public health issue in the East African highlands. The aim of this study was to monitor temporal variations in vector densities in relation to changes in meteorological factors and malaria incidence at four highland sites in Kenya and Uganda and to evaluate the implications of these relationships for(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria epidemics cause substantial morbidity and mortality in highland areas of Africa. The costs of detecting and controlling these epidemics have not been explored adequately in the past. This study presents the costs of establishing and running an early detection system (EDS) for epidemic malaria in four districts in the highlands of Kenya(More)
There are major concerns over sustaining the efficacy of current malaria vector control interventions given the rapid spread of resistance, particularly to pyrethroids. This study assessed the bioefficacy of five WHO-recommended long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae field populations from Uganda. Adult An.(More)
The major risk factors associated with acquisition of T. b. rhodesiense sleeping sickness in the Busoga focus, S.E. Uganda were investigated using a case-control study. 122 cases and 244 matched controls were used in the study. For each case two age-, sex- and resistance controls (1 matched nearest neighbour control and 1 village control) were selected.(More)
Malaria is a key health problem among displaced populations in malaria-endemic areas. Mass distribution of insecticide-treated bednets (ITN) to prevent malaria is often carried out in complex emergencies, but there are few data on the outcome or operational effectiveness of such programmes. In June 2001, Medecins Sans Frontieres completed a mass(More)
To the Editor: In the fi eld of malaria epidemic early warning, there exists an unfortunate but frequently accurate perception that health systems in many affected countries learn of epidemics by way of the popular press rather than through formal disease surveillance systems. Malaria epidemics are often easily recognized (albeit too late) by laypersons(More)
Southwestern Uganda has high malaria heterogeneity despite moderate vector control and other interventions. Moreover, the early biting transmission and increased resistance to insecticides might compromise strategies relying on vector control. Consequently, monitoring of vector behaviour and insecticide efficacy is needed to assess the effectiveness of(More)
Malaria epidemics represent a significant public health problem in the highlands of Africa. Many of these epidemics occur in low resource settings, where the development of an effective system for malaria surveillance has been a key challenge. Between 2001 and 2006, the Highland Malaria Project (HIMAL) established a programme to develop and test a(More)
Malaria epidemics remain a serious threat to human populations living in the highlands of East Africa where transmission is unstable and climate sensitive. An existing early malaria epidemic prediction model required further development, validations and automation before its wide use and application in the region. The model has a lead-time of two to four(More)