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Long-term depression (LTD) of Purkinje cell-parallel fiber synaptic transmission is a critical determinant of normal cerebellar function. Impairment of LTD through, for example, disruption of the metabotropic glutamate receptor-IP3-calcium signaling cascade in mutant mice results in severe deficits of both synaptic transmission and cerebellar motor control.(More)
BACKGROUND Recent functional imaging studies on chronic pain of various organic etiologies have shown significant alterations in both the spatial and the temporal dimensions of the functional connectivity of the human brain in its resting state. However, it remains unclear whether similar changes in intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) also occur in(More)
OBJECTIVE This preliminary study investigates the neural substrates of empathy-induced pain in multisomatoform pain patients "with vs. without" a history of sexual abuse during childhood. METHODS Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioral measurements, we compared eight abused with eight nonabused patients using an established(More)
Introspective and self-referential in nature, the human brain's default mode network (DMN) is presumed to influence our behavior in response to the environment in predictive manner [Raichle ME, Gusnard DA (2005) J Comp Neurol 493:167-176; Bar M (2009) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:1235-1243]. In the current study, we hypothesize that the strength(More)
Patients with severe and disabling pain and bodily distress which cannot be explained by underlying organic pathology are common in all levels of health care and are typically difficult to treat for physicians as well as for mental health specialists. Beside pain in different locations, not fully explained by specific somatic pathology, specific functional(More)
BACKGROUND Multisomatoform disorder is characterised by severe and disabling bodily symptoms, and pain is one of the most common and impairing of these. Furthermore, these bodily symptoms cannot be explained by an underlying organic disorder. Patients with multisomatoform disorder are commonly found at all levels of healthcare and are typically difficult to(More)
The receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB and its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5), are critically important for growth, survival and activity-dependent synaptic strengthening in the central nervous system. These TrkB-mediated actions occur in a highly cell-type specific manner. Here we report that cerebellar Purkinje(More)
The resting state of the human brain is intrinsically organized by the so-called default mode network (DMN) which comprises cortical midline structure as well as lateral parietal and temporal areas. The activity of this system increases during self-oriented thinking, e.g. during a resting state but decreases during externally oriented attention and specific(More)
BACKGROUND Without stimulation, the human brain spontaneously produces highly organized, low-frequency fluctuations of neural activity in intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Furthermore, without adequate explanatory nociceptive input, patients with somatoform pain disorder experience pain symptoms, thus implicating a central dysregulation of pain(More)