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We introduce calculus-based formulas for the continuous Euler and homotopy operators. The 1D continuous homotopy operator automates integration by parts on the jet space. Its 3D generalization allows one to invert the total divergence operator. As a practical application, we show how the operators can be used to symbolically compute local conservation laws(More)
The stability of periodic solutions of partial differential equations has been an area of increasing interest in the last decade. The KdV equation is known to have large families of periodic solutions that are parameterized by hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces. They are generalizations of the famous multi-soliton solutions. We show that all such periodic(More)
Intracellular calcium (Ca) cycling dynamics in cardiac myocytes is regulated by a complex network of spatially distributed organelles, such as sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), mitochondria, and myofibrils. In this study, we present a mathematical model of intracellular Ca cycling and numerical and computational methods for computer simulations. The model(More)
Calcium (Ca) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates many biological functions. The elementary events of local Ca signaling are Ca sparks, which occur randomly in time and space, and integrate to produce global signaling events such as intra- and intercellular Ca waves and whole-cell Ca oscillations. Despite extensive experimental characterization(More)
The stability of periodic solutions of partial differential equations has been an area of increasing interest in the last decade. In this paper, we derive all periodic traveling wave solutions of the focusing and defocusing mKdV equations. We show that in the defocusing case all such solutions are orbitally stable with respect to subharmonic perturbations:(More)
The stability of the stationary periodic solutions of the integrable (one-dimensional, cubic) defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is reasonably well understood, especially for solutions of small amplitude. In this paper, we exploit the integrability of the NLS equation to establish the spectral stability of all such stationary solutions, this(More)
It has been shown that transient single mitochondrial depolarizations, known as flickers, tend to occur randomly in space and time. On the other hand, many studies have shown that mitochondrial depolarization waves and whole-cell oscillations occur under oxidative stress. How single mitochondrial flickering events and whole-cell oscillations are(More)
Intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) alternans is a dynamical phenomenon in ventricular myocytes, which is linked to the genesis of lethal arrhythmias. Iterated map models of intracellular Ca(2+) cycling dynamics in ventricular myocytes under periodic pacing have been developed to study the mechanisms of Ca(2+) alternans. Two mechanisms of Ca(2+) alternans have(More)
The homotopy algorithm is a powerful method for indefinite integration of total derivatives, and for the indefinite summation of differences. By combining these ideas with straightforward Gaus-sian elimination, we construct an algorithm for the optimal symbolic integration or summation of expressions that contain terms that are not total derivatives or(More)