Michael N. Sack

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an established role in inflammation and host defense, as they kill intracellular bacteria and have been shown to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. Here, we find that ROS generated by mitochondrial respiration are important for normal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-driven production of several proinflammatory cytokines and for the(More)
The "metabolic cocktail" comprising glucose-insulin-potassium administrated at reperfusion reduces infarct size in the in vivo rat heart. We propose that insulin is the major component mediating this protection and acts via Akt prosurvival signaling. This hypothesis was studied in isolated perfused rat hearts (measuring infarct size to area of risk [%])(More)
BACKGROUND During the development of heart failure (HF), the chief myocardial energy substrate switches from fatty acids to glucose. This metabolic switch, which recapitulates fetal cardiac energy substrate preferences, is thought to maintain aerobic energetic balance. The regulatory mechanisms involved in this metabolic response are unknown. METHODS AND(More)
Although initially viewed as unregulated, increasing evidence suggests that cellular necrosis often proceeds through a specific molecular program. In particular, death ligands such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α activate necrosis by stimulating the formation of a complex containing receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and receptor-interacting protein 3(More)
During cardiac hypertrophy, the chief myocardial energy source switches from fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) to glycolysis-a reversion to fetal metabolism. The expression of genes encoding myocardial FAO enzymes was delineated in a murine ventricular pressure overload preparation to characterize the molecular regulatory events involved in the alteration of(More)
Acetylation has recently emerged as an important mechanism for controlling a broad array of proteins mediating cellular adaptation to metabolic fuels. Acetylation is governed, in part, by SIRTs (sirtuins), class III NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in liver during fasting and aging. However, the role of acetylation or(More)
Our novel proposal is that TNFα exerts a direct effect on mitochondrial respiratory function in the heart, independently of its cell surface receptors. TNFα-induced cardioprotection is known to involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sphingolipids. We therefore further propose that this direct mitochondrial effect is mediated via ROS and sphingolipids.(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the functional requirement of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) in cardiac myocyte tolerance to ischemia (I) and in classical preconditioning. METHODS Cardiac myocyte STAT-3 was depleted in mice using Cre-lox p technology. Isolated cardiomyocytes from wild-type (WT) and STAT-3-deficient mice were evaluated(More)
OBJECTIVE Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is known to mimic ischemic preconditioning (IP). However, it is not known whether TNFalpha-preconditioning is mediated by 'established' preconditioning signaling or via novel signaling cascades. Moreover, whether TNFalpha is required to induce the ischemic preconditioning phenotype has not been determined. (More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to examine whether the delta (delta) opioid receptor isoform is expressed in the human heart and whether this receptor improves contractile function after hypoxic/reoxygenation injury. BACKGROUND Delta opioid receptor agonists mimic preconditioning (PC) in rat myocardium, corresponding to known cardiac delta(More)