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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an established role in inflammation and host defense, as they kill intracellular bacteria and have been shown to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. Here, we find that ROS generated by mitochondrial respiration are important for normal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-driven production of several proinflammatory cytokines and for the(More)
Pharmacological uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidation from phosphorylation promotes preconditioning-like cardioprotection in the isolated rat heart. We hypothesized that modest mitochondrial uncoupling may be a critical cellular event in orchestrating preconditioning. Human-derived Girardi cells and murine C2C12 skeletal myotubes were preconditioned using(More)
The "metabolic cocktail" comprising glucose-insulin-potassium administrated at reperfusion reduces infarct size in the in vivo rat heart. We propose that insulin is the major component mediating this protection and acts via Akt prosurvival signaling. This hypothesis was studied in isolated perfused rat hearts (measuring infarct size to area of risk [%])(More)
Although initially viewed as unregulated, increasing evidence suggests that cellular necrosis often proceeds through a specific molecular program. In particular, death ligands such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α activate necrosis by stimulating the formation of a complex containing receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and receptor-interacting protein 3(More)
Nitrite (NO(2)(-)) is an intrinsic signaling molecule that is reduced to NO during ischemia and limits apoptosis and cytotoxicity at reperfusion in the mammalian heart, liver, and brain. Although the mechanism of nitrite-mediated cytoprotection is unknown, NO is a mediator of the ischemic preconditioning cell-survival program. Analogous to the temporally(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the functional requirement of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) in cardiac myocyte tolerance to ischemia (I) and in classical preconditioning. METHODS Cardiac myocyte STAT-3 was depleted in mice using Cre-lox p technology. Isolated cardiomyocytes from wild-type (WT) and STAT-3-deficient mice were evaluated(More)
Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50%(More)
  • Murphy E, Ardehali H, Balaban Rs, Dilisa F, Dorn Gw, Kitsis Rn +18 others
  • 2016
1960 Abstract—Cardiovascular disease is a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and elsewhere. Alterations in mitochondrial function are increasingly being recognized as a contributing factor in myocardial infarction and in patients presenting with cardiomyopathy. Recent understanding of the complex interaction of the(More)
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is hypothesized to contribute to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Whether thiazolidinedione therapy enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial function as a component of its insulin-sensitizing effect is unknown. To test this, we evaluated skeletal muscle mitochondria and exercise capacity(More)
role of energy deficits in the development and progression of heart failure is well-established and cardiac high-energy phosphate levels correlate directly with survival in cardiomyopathy patients [1]. In light of these clinical observations it has been posited that the modulation of mitochondrial function may be a feasible strategy to ameliorate heart(More)