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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an established role in inflammation and host defense, as they kill intracellular bacteria and have been shown to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. Here, we find that ROS generated by mitochondrial respiration are important for normal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-driven production of several proinflammatory cytokines and for the(More)
Pharmacological uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidation from phosphorylation promotes preconditioning-like cardioprotection in the isolated rat heart. We hypothesized that modest mitochondrial uncoupling may be a critical cellular event in orchestrating preconditioning. Human-derived Girardi cells and murine C2C12 skeletal myotubes were preconditioned using(More)
I n describing human nature, the Irish author and satirist Jonathan Swift noted that " vision is the art of seeing what is invisible to others. " In the biological sciences, " vision " is transformed into a " science " as progress in imaging technology enables the uncovering of previously " invisible " intracellular programs. This capacity to " see inside(More)
The "metabolic cocktail" comprising glucose-insulin-potassium administrated at reperfusion reduces infarct size in the in vivo rat heart. We propose that insulin is the major component mediating this protection and acts via Akt prosurvival signaling. This hypothesis was studied in isolated perfused rat hearts (measuring infarct size to area of risk [%])(More)
Nitrite (NO(2)(-)) is an intrinsic signaling molecule that is reduced to NO during ischemia and limits apoptosis and cytotoxicity at reperfusion in the mammalian heart, liver, and brain. Although the mechanism of nitrite-mediated cytoprotection is unknown, NO is a mediator of the ischemic preconditioning cell-survival program. Analogous to the temporally(More)
Although initially viewed as unregulated, increasing evidence suggests that cellular necrosis often proceeds through a specific molecular program. In particular, death ligands such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α activate necrosis by stimulating the formation of a complex containing receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and receptor-interacting protein 3(More)
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 (encoded by Hmox1) catalyzes the oxidative degradation of heme to biliverdin and carbon monoxide. HO-1 is induced during inflammation and oxidative stress to protect tissues from oxidative damage. Because intravascular thrombosis forms at sites of tissue inflammation, we hypothesized that HO-1 protects against arterial thrombosis(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the functional requirement of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) in cardiac myocyte tolerance to ischemia (I) and in classical preconditioning. METHODS Cardiac myocyte STAT-3 was depleted in mice using Cre-lox p technology. Isolated cardiomyocytes from wild-type (WT) and STAT-3-deficient mice were evaluated(More)
There are strong data favoring the pathogenic role of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)) activation with subsequent promotion of myocyte growth and cardiac fibrosis in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. An emerging hypothesis suggests that the activity of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)) may counterregulate AT(1)(More)
BACKGROUND Delayed ischemic preconditioning promotes cardioprotection via genomic reprogramming. We hypothesize that molecular regulation of mitochondrial energetics is integral to this cardioprotective program. METHODS AND RESULTS Preconditioning was induced by use of 3 episodes of 3-minute coronary artery occlusion separated by 5 minutes of reperfusion.(More)