Michael Murphey-Corb

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Cell cycle proteins regulate processes as diverse as cell division and cell death. Recently their role in neuronal death has been reported in several models of neurodegeneration. We have reported previously that two key regulators of the cell cycle, the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (pRb) and transcription factor E2F1, exhibit altered(More)
Disruption of the perineuronal matrix has been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis. To better understand the extent of matrix disruption during lentiviral encephalitis, we characterized the extracellular matrix (ECM) damage in brains of 12 macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Matrix integrity was assessed by(More)
BACKGROUND The recent H5N1 avian and H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus outbreaks reaffirm that the threat of a world-wide influenza pandemic is both real and ever-present. Vaccination is still considered the best strategy for protection against influenza virus infection but a significant challenge is to identify new vaccine approaches that offer accelerated(More)
Neurodegeneration observed in lentiviral-associated encephalitis has been linked to viral-infected and -activated central nervous system macrophages. We hypothesized that lentivirus, macrophages, or both lentivirus and macrophages within distinct microenvironments mediate synaptic damage. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque model,(More)
Immunotherapies that induce durable immune control of chronic HIV infection may eliminate the need for life-long dependence on drugs. We investigated a DNA vaccine formulated with a novel genetic adjuvant that stimulates immune responses in the blood and gut for the ability to improve therapy in rhesus macaques chronically infected with SIV. Using the(More)
Lentiviral encephalitis has been hypothesized to be associated with altered monocyte migration into the brain. CD14(hi)/CD16(lo) and CD14(lo)/CD16(hi) monocytes were expanded during acute infection; however, this expansion was not unique or greater in macaques that developed encephalitis. The proportion of monocytes that expressed CD62L, HLA-DR, CD16, CD64,(More)
At least six host-encoded restriction factors (RFs), APOBEC3G, TRIM5α, tetherin, SAMHD1, schlafen 11, and Mx2 have now been shown to inhibit HIV and/or SIV replication in vitro. To determine their role in vivo in the resistance of macaques to mucosally-acquired SIV, we quantified both pre-exposure (basal) and post-exposure mRNA levels of these RFs, Mx1, and(More)
Antiretroviral therapy has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients but also increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. We previously identified YKL40 as a potential cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker of lentiviral central nervous system (CNS) disease in HIV-infected patients and in the macaque model of HIV encephalitis. The(More)
An effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is needed to eradicate the HIV/AIDS pandemic but designing such a vaccine is a challenge. Despite many advances in vaccine technology and approaches to generate both humoral and cellular immune responses, major phase-II and -III vaccine trials against HIV/AIDS have resulted in only moderate successes. The modest(More)
Progression of HIV encephalitis (HIVE) is associated with neuronal damage and loss because of infiltration of infected and/or activated macrophages into the CNS. We have previously observed increased inactivation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (pRb) by phosphorylation in neurons and glia of HIVE and the simian model of HIVE (SIVE). To(More)