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Oligonucleotide and complementary DNA microarrays are being used to subclassify histologically similar tumours, monitor disease progress, and individualize treatment regimens. However, extracting new biological insight from high-throughput genomic studies of human diseases is a challenge, limited by difficulties in recognizing and evaluating relevant(More)
BACKGROUND Anopheles innate immunity affects Plasmodium development and is a potential target of innovative malaria control strategies. The extent and distribution of nucleotide diversity in immunity genes might provide insights into the evolutionary forces that condition pathogen-vector interactions. The discovery of polymorphisms is an essential step(More)
In this study, we found 985 genes that change expression in the cortex and the medulla of the kidney with age. Some of the genes whose transcripts increase in abundance with age are known to be specifically expressed in immune cells, suggesting that immune surveillance or inflammation increases with age. The age-regulated genes show a similar aging profile(More)
We developed a model system to study the signal transduction pathways leading to the activation of Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in the defense against pathogen attack. Here we describe the identification and characterization of virulent and avirulent Pseudomonas syringae strains that elicit disease or resistance symptoms when infiltrated into(More)
We developed a modified allele-specific PCR procedure for assaying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used the procedure (called SNAP for single-nucleotide amplified polymorphisms) to generate 62 Arabidopsis mapping markers. SNAP primers contain a single base pair mismatch within three nucleotides from the 3' end of one allele (the specific allele)(More)
In plants, resistance to a pathogen is frequently correlated with a genetically defined interaction between a plant resistance gene and a corresponding pathogen avirulence gene. A simple model explains these gene-for-gene interactions: avirulence gene products generate signals (ligands), and resistance genes encode cognate receptors. The A. thaliana RPS2(More)
A cornerstone of modern biomedical research is the use of mouse models to explore basic pathophysiological mechanisms, evaluate new therapeutic approaches, and make go or no-go decisions to carry new drug candidates forward into clinical trials. Systematic studies evaluating how well murine models mimic human inflammatory diseases are nonexistent. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND To improve cancer therapy, it is critical to target metastasizing cells. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells found in the blood of patients with solid tumors and may play a key role in cancer dissemination. Uncovering CTC phenotypes offers a potential avenue to inform treatment. However, CTC transcriptional profiling is limited by(More)
Human survival from injury requires an appropriate inflammatory and immune response. We describe the circulating leukocyte transcriptome after severe trauma and burn injury, as well as in healthy subjects receiving low-dose bacterial endotoxin, and show that these severe stresses produce a global reprioritization affecting >80% of the cellular functions and(More)
The analysis of gene expression data in clinical medicine has been plagued by the lack of a critical evaluation of accepted methodologies for the collection, processing, and labeling of RNA. In the present report, the reliability of two commonly used techniques to isolate RNA from whole blood or its leukocyte compartment was compared by examining their(More)