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Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) lineages have been identified that are endemic to Bioko Island. The time the island formed offers a geological time scale calibration point for dating the most recent common ancestor of SIV. The Bioko viruses cover the whole range of SIV genetic diversity, and each Bioko SIV clade is most closely related to viruses(More)
Bivalve mollusks of the North Atlantic, most prominently the soft shell clam Mya arenaria, are afflicted with an epidemic transmissible disease of the circulatory system closely resembling leukemia. The disease is characterized by a dramatic expansion of blast-like cells in the hemolymph with high mitotic index. Examination of hemolymph of diseased clams(More)
The question of satissability for a given proposi-tional formula arises in many areas of AI. Especially nding a model for a satissable formula is very important though known to be NP-complete. There exist complete algorithms for satissability testing like the Davis-Putnam-Algorithm, but they often do not construct a satisfying assignment for the formula ,(More)
Gene targeting by homologous recombination (HR) can be induced by double-strand breaks (DSBs), however these breaks can be toxic and potentially mutagenic. We investigated the I-AniI homing endonuclease engineered to produce only nicks, and found that nicks induce HR with both plasmid and adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector templates. The rates of(More)
Outbreaks of fatal leukemia-like cancers of marine bivalves throughout the world have led to massive population loss. The cause of the disease is unknown. We recently identified a retrotransposon, Steamer, that is highly expressed and amplified to high copy number in neoplastic cells of soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria). Through analysis of Steamer(More)
BACKGROUND Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a lethal lung cancer in sheep and goats. Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env) protein in mouse lung, by using a replication-defective adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6) vector, induces tumors resembling those seen in sheep. However, the mouse and sheep tumors have not been carefully compared to(More)
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been shown to mediate persistent transduction in animal models of gene therapy. However, clinical trials with AAV vectors have shown that an immune response to AAV capsid protein can result in clearance of transduced cells. One source of capsid antigen is from the delivered vector virions, but expression of cap DNA(More)
LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases (LHEs) are a family of highly specific DNA endonucleases capable of recognizing target sequences ≈ 20 bp in length, thus drawing intense interest for their potential academic, biotechnological and clinical applications. Methods for rational design of LHEs to cleave desired target sites are presently limited by a small number(More)
Most cancers arise from oncogenic changes in the genomes of somatic cells, and while the cells may migrate by metastasis, they remain within that single individual. Natural transmission of cancer cells from one individual to another has been observed in two distinct cases in mammals (Tasmanian devils and dogs), but these are generally considered to be rare(More)
Eosinophil migration from circulation is controlled, in part, by chemokines through a family of G-protein-coupled chemokine receptors (CCR). Studies of human eosinophils have demonstrated that signaling through CCR3 receptors is a prominent pathway leading to chemotaxis, although several other receptor-ligand interactions also appear to mediate eosinophil(More)