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A common measure of the quality or effectiveness of a virtual environment (VE) is the mount of <i>presence</i> it evokes in users. Presence is often defined as the sense of <i>being there</i> in a VE. There has been much debate about the best way to measure presence, and presence researchers need, and have sought, a measure that is <b>reliable, valid,(More)
Previous research has shown that even low end-to-end latency can have adverse effects on performance in virtual environments (VE). This paper reports on an experiment investigating the effect of latency on other metrics of VE effectiveness: physiological response, simulator sickness, and self-reported sense of presence. The VE used in the study includes two(More)
A common measure of effectiveness of a virtual environment (VE) is the amount of presence it evokes in users. Presence is commonly defined as the sense of being there in a VE. There has been much debate about the best way to measure presence, and presence researchers need and have sought a measure that is reliable, valid, sensitive, and objective. We(More)
We recently reported that macrophages from aged mice produced less tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation than macrophages from young animals. This correlated with decreased levels of phosphorylated and total p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Here, we went on to(More)
The treatment of patients with complex facial deformities is one of the most challenging multidisciplinary tasks in plastic surgery. Due to advancements in medical technology and surgical techniques in the last 20 years correction of severe malformations has become possible and is performed by highly specialized teams frequently in a single operation.(More)
Over 60% of current pharmaceutical drugs have origins in natural products. To expand on current methods allowing one to characterize natural products directly from bacterial culture, herein we describe the use of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) imaging mass spectrometry in monitoring the exchange of secondary metabolites between Bacillus subtilis(More)
The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5-2 m(2) that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution(More)
We have developed an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MRM/MS)-based, high-content, high-throughput platform that enables simultaneous profiling of multiple lipids produced ex vivo in human whole blood (HWB) on treatment with calcium ionophore and its modulation with pharmacological agents. HWB(More)
LovF is a highly reducing polyketide synthase (HR-PKS) from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus. LovF synthesizes the alpha-S-methylbutyrate side chain that is subsequently transferred to monacolin J to yield the cholesterol-lowering natural product lovastatin. In the report, we expressed the full length LovF and reconstituted the megasynthase(More)