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A common measure of the quality or effectiveness of a virtual environment (VE) is the mount of <i>presence</i> it evokes in users. Presence is often defined as the sense of <i>being there</i> in a VE. There has been much debate about the best way to measure presence, and presence researchers need, and have sought, a measure that is <b>reliable, valid,(More)
Previous research has shown that even low end-to-end latency can have adverse effects on performance in virtual environments (VE). This paper reports on an experiment investigating the effect of latency on other metrics of VE effectiveness: physiological response, simulator sickness, and self-reported sense of presence. The VE used in the study includes two(More)
A common measure of effectiveness of a virtual environment (VE) is the amount of presence it evokes in users. Presence is commonly defined as the sense of being there in a VE. There has been much debate about the best way to measure presence, and presence researchers need and have sought a measure that is reliable, valid, sensitive, and objective. We(More)
Virtual environments (VEs) are one of the most advanced human-computer interface to date. A common measure of the effectiveness of a VE is the amount of presence it evokes in users. Presence is commonly defined as the sense of being there in a VE. In order to study the effect that technological improvements such as higher frame rate, more visual realism,(More)
1 Presence and virtual environments Virtual environments (VEs) are the most advanced human-computer interfaces yet developed. Researchers, by the development of new methods, theories, and technologies, have endeavored to make effective VEs. The definition of effectiveness changes based on the application of the VE. For flight simulators, training transfer(More)
We present a system for 3D planning and pre-operative rehearsal of mandibular distraction osteogenesis procedures. Two primary architectural components are described: a planning system that allows geometric bone manipulation to rapidly explore various modifications and configurations, and a visuohaptic simulator that allows both general-purpose training and(More)
1. ABSTRACT Of several physiological metrics in a stress-inducing virtual environment, change in heart rate proved most effective as an objective, sensitive, valid, and reliable measure of the VE's effectiveness in producing a sense of presence. 2. "PRESENCE" IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Virtual environments (VEs) are the most sophisticated human-computer(More)