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Ustilago maydis is a ubiquitous pathogen of maize and a well-established model organism for the study of plant-microbe interactions. This basidiomycete fungus does not use aggressive virulence strategies to kill its host. U. maydis belongs to the group of biotrophic parasites (the smuts) that depend on living tissue for proliferation and development. Here(More)
AIMS Previous research has reported that both contingency management (CM) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are efficacious interventions for the treatment of stimulant abusers. The present study sought to directly compare the effectiveness of (CM) and (CBT) alone and in combination in reducing stimulant use. DESIGN Randomized clinical trial. (More)
Naltrexone is an opiate antagonist used as a pharmacologic adjuvant for the treatment of opiate and alcohol addiction. It has been hypothesized that naltrexone blocks the stress-response and well-being effects associated with opioid peptides. This raises the clinical concern that naltrexone may cause dysphoria. The authors reviewed pharmacological and(More)
Bupropion was tested for efficacy in increasing weeks of abstinence in methamphetamine-dependent patients, compared to placebo. This was a double-blind placebo-controlled study, with 12 weeks of treatment and a 30-day follow-up. Five outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics located west of the Mississippi participated in the study. One hundred and(More)
The Matrix model was originally developed in response to the cocaine epidemic of the 1980s. The program consists of relapse prevention groups, education groups, social support groups, individual counseling, and urine and breath testing delivered in a structured manner over a 16-week period. The treatment is a directive, nonconfrontational approach which(More)
BACKGROUND This study compared 2 psychosocial approaches for the treatment of cocaine dependence: contingency management (CM) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). METHODS Patients with cocaine dependence who were receiving methadone maintenance treatment (n = 120) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: CM, CBT, combined CM and CBT (CBT + CM), or(More)
Relapse prevention techniques have recently been incorporated into some nonpharmacologic models of chemical dependency treatment. The neurobehavioral model of cocaine dependency treatment establishes a clear timetable for recovery from cocaine dependency and focuses on four distinct areas of functioning. Strategies for addressing these areas of functioning(More)
OBJECTIVE Theory and some preliminary evidence suggest that contingency management may be an effective treatment strategy or adjunct to psychosocial treatment for methamphetamine use disorders. An experimentally rigorous investigation on the topic was provided by a large multisite trial conducted under the auspices of the Clinical Trials Network of the(More)
The Geospatial Component of the X3D Standard suffers from some deficiencies that prevent its wider adoption. This paper addresses two of these deficiencies. The first problem is that in order to reduce spatial jitter content must be built with regionally defined GeoOrigin nodes. This approach is fine for localized regional geospatial data visualization(More)