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In many western nations, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are present in aquatic environments, raising concerns amongst chemists and toxicologists regarding their potential environmental fates and effects. However, there are few published reports of PPCPs in environmental samples from Southeast Asia. Whilst the environmental toxicology of(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used fire retardant compounds which, like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have become ubiquitous in environmental media. Time trend analyses of PBDE levels in sediments and biota generally show an increasing trend. The lower (tetra- and penta-) PBDEs accumulate and predominate in biota, whilst the higher(More)
BACKGROUND In Thailand, phase 1/2 trials of monovalent subtype B and bivalent subtype B/E (CRF01_AE) recombinant glycoprotein 120 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines were successfully conducted from 1995 to 1998, prompting the first HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial in Asia. METHODS This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis reduces sexual transmission of HIV. We assessed whether daily oral use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir), an antiretroviral, can reduce HIV transmission in injecting drug users. METHODS In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled volunteers from 17 drug-treatment(More)
We introduce a novel mathematical approach to investigating the spread and control of communicable infections in closed communities. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial pneumonia in the United States. Outbreaks of illness attributable to mycoplasma commonly occur in closed or semi-closed communities. These outbreaks are difficult to contain(More)
BACKGROUND Although family history of cancer is widely ascertained in research and clinical care, little is known about assessment methods, accuracy, or other quality measures. Given its widespread use in cancer screening and surveillance, better information is needed about the clarity and accuracy of family history information reported in the general(More)
We investigated the presence and fate of 16 antibiotics belonging to seven groups (beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, trimethoprim and amphenicols) in effluents of sewage plants and receiving waters in Hong Kong. Cefalexin, amoxicillin, ofloxacin and erythromycin-H(2)O were ubiquitous in sea water throughout Victoria(More)
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a group of emerging chemicals of environmental concern that have remained largely unrecognized until recent advances in low level analytical measurements (Cha et al. The growing concern over the occurrence and fate of PPCPs has been attributed not only to the induction of adverse effects in terrestrial(More)
In 1998, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was notified of severe illnesses and one death, temporally associated with yellow fever (YF) vaccination, in two elderly U.S. residents. Because the cases were unusual and adverse events following YF vaccination had not been studied, we estimated age-related reporting rates for systemic illness(More)
Sediments and green-lipped mussels, Perna viridis, were used to investigate concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Hong Kong's marine environment. PBDEs have been used extensively over the past two decades as flame retardants in polymer additives for a variety of plastics, computers, furniture, building materials, and fabrics. Many(More)