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Within the cholesterol biosynthesis cascade, the enzyme 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase [EC 5.4.99.7] is of special interest due to its dual function: cyclization of 2,3-monoepoxysqualene to lanosterol and 2,3;22,23-diepoxysqualene to oxylanosterol. Further determination of the significance of this enzyme for the intracellular cholesterol homeostasis was done(More)
Animal insulinoma cell lines are widely used to study physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in glucose metabolism and to establish in vitro models for studies on beta-cells. In contrast, human insulinoma cell lines are rarely used because of difficulties in obtaining and culturing them for long periods. The aim of our study was to(More)
BI 1356 [proposed trade name ONDERO; (R)-8-(3-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-7-but-2-ynyl-3-methyl-1-(4-methyl-quinazolin-2-ylmethyl)-3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dione] is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor under clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the potency, selectivity, mechanism, and duration of(More)
In recent years, new and effective therapeutic agents for blood glucose control have been added to standard diabetes therapies: dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which prolong the bioavailability of the endogenously secreted incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Full-thickness excisional wounding was performed in wild-type (C57BL/6J)(More)
Atomic and molecular samples reduced to temperatures below one microkelvin, yet still in the gas phase, afford unprecedented energy resolution in probing and manipulating the interactions between their constituent particles. As a result of this resolution, atoms can be made to scatter resonantly on demand, through the precise control of a magnetic field.(More)
The striking and unexpected relative risk reductions in cardiovascular (CV) mortality (38%), hospitalization for heart failure (35%), and death from any cause (32%) observed in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial using an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in patients with type 2 diabetes and high CV risk have raised the possibility that mechanisms(More)
Batterham et al. report that the gut peptide hormone PYY3-36 decreases food intake and body-weight gain in rodents, a discovery that has been heralded as potentially offering a new therapy for obesity. However, we have been unable to replicate their results. Although the reasons for this discrepancy remain undetermined, an effective anti-obesity drug(More)
BACKGROUND Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibition is reported to have beneficial effects on myocardial ischemia. Mechanisms might include a reduced degradation of stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha with subsequent increased recruitment of circulating stem cells and/or incretin receptor-dependent pathways. This study evaluated the novel xanthine-based(More)
A new chemical class of potent DPP-4 inhibitors structurally derived from the xanthine scaffold for the treatment of type 2 diabetes has been discovered and evaluated. Systematic structural variations have led to 1 (BI 1356), a highly potent, selective, long-acting, and orally active DPP-4 inhibitor that shows considerable blood glucose lowering in(More)