Learn More
Cone signals divide into parallel ON and OFF bipolar cell pathways, which respond to objects brighter or darker than the background and release glutamate onto the corresponding type of ganglion cell. It is assumed that ganglion cell excitatory responses are driven by these bipolar cell synapses. Here, we report an additional mechanism: OFF ganglion cells(More)
Visual neurons, from retina to cortex, adapt slowly to stimulus contrast. Following a switch from high to low contrast, a neuron rapidly decreases its responsiveness and recovers over 5-20 s. Cortical adaptation arises from an intrinsic cellular mechanism: a sodium-dependent potassium conductance that causes prolonged hyperpolarization. Spiking can drive(More)
In the retina, it is not well understood how visual processing depends on AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. Here we investigated how these receptors contribute to contrast coding in identified guinea pig ganglion cell types in vitro. NMDA-mediated responses were negligible in ON alpha cells but substantial in OFF alpha and delta cells. OFF delta cell(More)
A retinal ganglion cell receptive field is made up of an excitatory center and an inhibitory surround. The surround has two components: one driven by horizontal cells at the first synaptic layer and one driven by amacrine cells at the second synaptic layer. Here we characterized how amacrine cells inhibit the center response of on- and off-center Y-type(More)
Visual neurons adapt to increases in stimulus contrast by reducing their response sensitivity and decreasing their integration time, a collective process known as 'contrast gain control.' In retinal ganglion cells, gain control arises at two stages: an intrinsic mechanism related to spike generation, and a synaptic mechanism in retinal pathways. Here, we(More)
The distinctive red-green dimension of human and nonhuman primate color perception arose relatively recently in the primate lineage with the appearance of separate long (L) and middle (M) wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptor types. "Midget" ganglion cells of the retina use center-surround receptive field structure to combine L and M cone signals(More)
The distribution of the soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor protein syntaxin-4 and the Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) were investigated in the outer plexiform layer of human retina using immunohistochemistry. Both proteins, which are proposed to be components of a gamma-aminobutyric acid mediated feed-forward circuit from horizontal cells directly to(More)
This paper discusses the integration of two different machine learning approaches to modeling language, NL-Soar and ana-logical modeling (AM). The resulting hybrid system is capable of functionality that is not possible when using only one of the systems in isolation. After a brief introduction of each system, an explanation is given of how AM is used to(More)
Postsynaptic AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs, NMDARs) are commonly expressed at the same synapses. AMPARs are thought to mediate the majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission whereas NMDARs, with their relatively slower kinetics and higher Ca(2+) permeability, are thought to mediate synaptic plasticity, especially in neural circuits(More)