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Natural interferon-producing cells (IPC) respond to viruses by secreting type I interferon (IFN) and interleukin-12 (IL-12). Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 mediates IPC recognition of some of these viruses in vitro. However, whether TLR9-induced activation of IPC is necessary for an effective antiviral response in vivo is not clear. Here, we demonstrate that(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in antiviral immunity. While the importance of effector mechanisms such as interferons has been demonstrated through knockout mice, specific mechanisms of how viruses are recognized and controlled by NK cells are less well defined. Previous genetic studies have mapped the resistance genes for murine(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are inhibited from killing cellular targets by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In the mouse, this can be mediated by the Ly-49A NK cell receptor that specifically binds the H-2Dd MHC class I molecule, then inhibits NK cell activity. Previous experiments have indicated that Ly-49A recognizes the alpha(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are heterogeneous in their specificity and expression of cell surface molecules. In the mouse, the Ly-49A molecule is a primary determinant of NK cell specificity because of its ability to downregulate NK cell activation after physical interaction with target cell MHC class I molecules. Ly-49A is expressed on an NK cell subset, and(More)
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