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Speech perception can be viewed in terms of the listener's integration of two sources of information: the acoustic features transduced by the auditory receptor system and the context of the linguistic message. The present research asked how these sources were evaluated and integrated in the identification of synthetic speech. A speech continuum between the(More)
the lens of culture: Piychological well-being at midlife, unpublished manuscript. My children and me: Mid-life evaluations of grown children and of self. No one doubts the importance of the face in social interactions, but people seldom think of it as playing much of a role in verbal communication. A number of observations suggest otherwise, though: Many(More)
Subjects naturally integrate auditory and visual information in bimodal speech perception. To assess the robustness of the integration process, the relative onset time of the audible and visible sources was systematically varied. In the first experiment, bimodal syllables composed of the auditory and visible syllables/ba/ and/da/were present at five(More)
Three experiments were carried out to investigate the evaluation and integration of visual and auditory information in speech perception. In the first two experiments, subjects identified /ba/ or /da/ speech events consisting of high-quality synthetic syllables ranging from /ba/ to /da/ combined with a videotaped /ba/ or /da/ or neutral articulation.(More)
A set of freely available, universal speech tools is needed to accelerate progress in the speech technology. The CSLU Toolkit represents an effort to make the core technology and fundamental infrastructure accessible, affordable and easy to use. The CSLU Toolkit has been under development for five years. This paper describes recent improvements, additions(More)
Each of 12 subjects set a binocularly viewed target to apparent eye level; the target was projected on the rear wall of an open box, the floor of which was horizontal or pitched up and down at angles of 7.5 degrees and 15 degrees. Settings of the target were systematically biased by 60% of the pitch angle when the interior of the box was illuminated, but by(More)
Conversation agents present a challenging agenda for research and application. We describe the development, evaluation, and application of Baldi, a computer animated talking head. Baldi's existence is justified by the important contribution of the face in spoken dialog. His actions are evaluated and modified to mimic natural actions as much as possible.(More)
Thispaperpresentsaninitialimplementationand evaluation of a system that synthesizes visual speech directly from the acoustic waveform. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained to map the cepstral coefficients of an individual's natural speech to the control parameters of an animated synthetic talking head. We trained on(More)
We have implemented a facial animation system to carry out visible speech synthesis. Using this system, it is possible to manipulate control parameters to synthesize a sequence of speech articulations. In addition, it is possible to synthesize novel articulations, such as one that is half way between /ha! and Ida!. Given the importance of visible(More)