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We study gender differences in altruism by examining a modiŽed dictator game with varying incomes and prices. Our results indicate that the question “which is the fair sex?” has a complicated answer—when altruism is expensive, women are kinder, but when it is cheap, men are more altruistic. That is, we Žnd that the male and female “demand curves for(More)
BACKGROUND Early results of the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent stroke in Intracranial Stenosis trial showed that, by 30 days, 33 (14·7%) of 224 patients in the stenting group and 13 (5·8%) of 227 patients in the medical group had died or had a stroke (percentages are product limit estimates), but provided insufficient(More)
PURPOSE To analyze the epidemiologic features of ectasia after excimer laser corneal refractive surgery, to identify risk factors for its development, and to devise a screening strategy to minimize its occurrence. DESIGN Retrospective comparative and case-control study. PARTICIPANTS All cases of ectasia after excimer laser corneal refractive surgery(More)
Oxidative stress is a component of diseases and degenerative processes associated with aging. However, no means are available to assess causative oxidative events separately from decline in function of protective antioxidant systems. Previous studies show that ongoing oxidative processes maintain plasma cysteine/cystine redox at a value that is more(More)
Thiol and disulfide forms of glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were measured in plasma from 24 healthy individuals aged 25-35 and redox potential values (E(h)) for thiol/disulfide couples were calculated using the Nernst equation. Although the concentration of GSH (2.8 +/- 0.9 microM) was much greater than that of GSSG (0.14 +/- 0.04 microM), the redox(More)
BACKGROUND Antithrombotic therapy for intracranial arterial stenosis was recently evaluated in the Warfarin versus Aspirin for Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial. A prespecified aim of WASID was to identify patients at highest risk for stroke in the territory of the stenotic artery who would be the target group for a subsequent trial comparing(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Atherosclerosis of the major intracranial arteries is an important cause of ischemic stroke. We established measurement criteria to assess percent stenosis of a major intracranial artery (carotid, middle cerebral, vertebral, basilar) and determined the interobserver/intraobserver agreements and interclass/intraclass correlations of(More)
BACKGROUND The Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial showed that patients with symptomatic 70% to 99% intracranial arterial stenosis are at particularly high risk of ipsilateral stroke on medical therapy: 18% at 1 year (95% CI = 3% to 24%). The Wingspan intracranial stent is another therapeutic option but there are limited data on(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical characteristics and clinical-anatomic correlations of homonymous hemianopia (HH). BACKGROUND Homonymous hemianopia impairs visual function and frequently precludes driving. Most knowledge of HH is based on relatively few cases with clinical-anatomic correlations. METHODS The authors reviewed medical records of all(More)
PURPOSE To use static threshold perimetry to examine the stages of improvement and the potential for late improvement of visual fields after surgical resection of pituitary adenomas causing visual loss from compression of the anterior visual pathways. METHODS Retrospective review of charts of patients with pituitary tumors and abnormal static threshold(More)