Michael Luggen

Learn More
BACKGROUND A substantial number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis have an inadequate or unsustained response to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitors. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of abatacept, a selective costimulation modulator, in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and(More)
OBJECTIVE T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In animal models of autoimmune diseases, blockade of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing or treating this disease by preventing T cell activation. To date, the effect of costimulatory blockade in patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs may confer greater benefits when combined with the antimetabolite methotrexate. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of leflunomide versus placebo when added to ongoing, stable-dose methotrexate therapy in patients with persistently active rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN 24-week, multicenter,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether sulfasalazine (SSZ) at a dosage of 2,000 mg/day is effective for the treatment of active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) resistant to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug therapy. METHODS Two hundred twenty-one patients with PsA were recruited from 15 clinics, randomized (double-blind) to SSZ or placebo treatment, and followed up(More)
One hundred eighty-nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis were entered into a prospective, controlled, double-blind multicenter trial comparing placebo and methotrexate (MTX). One hundred ten patients completed 18 weeks of therapy. No remissions were seen, but patients able to tolerate low-dose pulse MTX therapy were significantly improved, compared with(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and safety of abatacept in combination with etanercept in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis during a 1-year, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase, followed by an open-label, long-term extension (LTE). METHODS Patients continued etanercept (25 mg twice weekly) and were randomised to receive(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of abatacept during 2 years of the ATTAIN (Abatacept Trial in Treatment of Anti-TNF INadequate responders) trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS Patients completing the 6-month, double-blind period were eligible to enter the long-term extension; patients received abatacept approximately 10(More)
OBJECTIVES Despite advances in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treatment, many patients suffer from the disease and side effects. Atacicept is a fusion protein that blocks B-lymphocyte stimulator and a proliferation-inducing ligand, which are increased in patients with SLE. METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE To obtain additional safety and efficacy data on leflunomide (LEF) treatment in combination with methotrexate (MTX) therapy in an open-label extension study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS Following a 24 week, randomized, double-blind trial of adding placebo (PLA) or LEF to stable MTX therapy, patients could enter a 24 week(More)
T cells are central mediators of adaptive immunity. As such, they are involved in both normal immune responses (e.g., rejection of a transplanted organ) and abnormal ones (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis). T cells require both antigen-specific and costimulatory signals for their full activation. Advances in protein engineering and an increased understanding of(More)