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This paper presents USARSim, an open source high fidelity robot simulator that can be used both for research and education. USARSim offers many characteristics that differentiate it from most existing simulators. Most notably, it constitutes the simulation engine used to run the virtual robots competition within the Robocup initiative. We describe its(More)
This work establishes an architecture for Urban Search and Rescue and a methodology for mixing real-world and simulation-based testing. A sensor suite and sensor fusion algorithm for robust victim detection permits aggregation of sensor readings from various sensors on multiple robots. We have embarked on a research program focusing on the enabling(More)
This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and(More)
Oxidant-induced damage to the intima of pulmonary and systemic vessels is thought to be an important mechanism of injury in a variety of syndromes of vascular damage. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an active oxygen metabolite that may induce intimal injury by cytolytic attack or by inducing biochemical and functional alterations in the endothelial cells (EC);(More)
Interference with cerebral energy metabolism due to excess ammonia has been postulated as a cause of hepatic encephalopathy. Furthermore, consideration of the neurologic basis of such features of hepatic encephalopathy as asterixis, decerebrate rigidity, hyperpnea, and coma suggests a malfunction of structures in the base of the brain and their cortical(More)
Crystal structures of the Lac repressor, with and without isopropyithiogalactoside (IPTG), and the repressor bound to operator have provided a model for how the binding of the inducer reduces the affinity of the repressor for the operator. However, because of the low resolution of the operator-bound structure (4.8 A), the model for the allosteric transition(More)
Although visualizations are components of many information interfaces, testing of these visual elements is rarely undertaken except as a part of overall usability testing. For this reason, it is unclear what role, if any, visualizations actually perform. Our method involves the creation of simple visual prototypes and task sets based on a visual taxonomy(More)
The intestinal crypt-niche interaction is thought to be essential to the function, maintenance, and proliferation of progenitor stem cells found at the bases of intestinal crypts. These stem cells are constantly renewing the intestinal epithelium by sending differentiated cells from the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn to the villus tips where they slough(More)
d e Interacting with a computer requires adopting some metaphor to guide our actions an xpectations. Most human-computer interfaces can be classified according to two r t dominant metaphors: agent or environment. Interactions based on an agent metapho reat the computer as an intermediary which responds to user requests. In the environ-d ment metaphor a(More)
Although many different visual information retrieval systems have been proposed, few have been tested, and where testing has been performed results were often inconclusive. Further, there is very little evidence of benchmarking systems against a common standard. An approach for testing novel interfaces is proposed which uses bottom-up, stepwise testing to(More)