Michael Levitt

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The ASTRAL compendium provides several databases and tools to aid in the analysis of protein structures, particularly through the use of their sequences. The SPACI scores included in the system summarize the overall characteristics of a protein structure. A structural alignments database indicates residue equivalencies in superimposed protein domain(More)
The ASTRAL Compendium provides several databases and tools to aid in the analysis of protein structures, particularly through the use of their sequences. Partially derived from the SCOP database of protein structure domains, it includes sequences for each domain and other resources useful for studying these sequences and domain structures. The current(More)
This study generates ensembles of decoy or test structures for eight small proteins with a variety of different folds. Between 35,000 and 200,000 decoys were generated for each protein using our four-state off-lattice model together with a novel relaxation method. These give compact self-avoiding conformations each constrained to have native secondary(More)
This report is one of a series of papers that introduce and use a new and highly simplified treatment of protein conformations. The first paper (Levitt & Warshel, 1975) outlined fhe approach and showed how it could be used to simulate the “renaturation” of a small protein. The present paper describes fhe representation in some detail and tests the methods(More)
We apply a simple method for aligning protein sequences on the basis of a 3D structure, on a large scale, to the proteins in the scop classification of fold families. This allows us to assess, understand, and improve our automatic method against an objective, manually derived standard, a type of comprehensive evaluation that has not yet been possible for(More)
We present an approach for assessing the significance of sequence and structure comparisons by using nearly identical statistical formalisms for both sequence and structure. Doing so involves an all-vs.-all comparison of protein domains [taken here from the Structural Classification of Proteins (scop) database] and then fitting a simple distribution(More)
The development of an energy or scoring function for protein structure prediction is greatly enhanced by testing the function on a set of computer-generated conformations (decoys) to determine whether it can readily distinguish native-like conformations from nonnative ones. We have created "Decoys 'R' Us," a database containing many such sets of(More)
After demonstration of the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)’ to dopamine (I), the pathway for biosynthesis of norepinephrine shown in Fig. 1 was proposed. Although evidence for this pathway was well established by isot,opic procedures (2, 3), it was not until 1960 that Levin, Levenberg, and Kaufman (4) succeeded in isolating and(More)
We report the largest and most comprehensive comparison of protein structural alignment methods. Specifically, we evaluate six publicly available structure alignment programs: SSAP, STRUCTAL, DALI, LSQMAN, CE and SSM by aligning all 8,581,970 protein structure pairs in a test set of 2930 protein domains specially selected from CATH v.2.4 to ensure sequence(More)
Segment match modeling uses a data base of highly refined known protein X-ray structures to build an unknown target structure from its amino acid sequence and the atomic coordinates of a few of its atoms (generally only the C alpha atoms). The target structure is first broken into a set of short segments. The data base is then searched for matching(More)