Michael Levin

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BACKGROUND Genetic differences in immune responses may affect susceptibility to mycobacterial infection, but no specific genes have been implicated in humans. We studied four children who had an unexplained genetic susceptibility to mycobacterial infection and who appeared to have inherited the same recessive mutation from a common ancestor. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a life-threatening, tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. This disease is rarely reported in Arizona, and the principal vectors, Dermacentor species ticks, are uncommon in the state. From 2002 through 2004, a focus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was investigated in rural eastern Arizona. METHODS We(More)
Although the introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have greatly increased the number of genes associated with common diseases, only a small proportion of the predicted genetic contribution has so far been elucidated. Studying the cumulative variation of polymorphisms in multiple genes acting in functional pathways may provide a(More)
As the central component of the human endotoxin sensor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) functions in the early detection and response to Gram-negative infection. We therefore examined a large collection of patients with meningococcal sepsis, comparing the frequency of rare TLR4 coding changes to those in an ethnically matched control population. TLR2 sequences(More)
The pathophysiological basis of hemorrhage in dengue infections remains poorly understood, despite the increasing global importance of these infections. A large prospective study of 167 Vietnamese children with dengue shock syndrome documented only minor prolongations of prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times but moderate to severe depression of(More)
Interferons are key modulators of the immune system, and are central to the control of many diseases. The response of immune cells to stimuli in complex populations is the product of direct and indirect effects, and of homotypic and heterotypic cell interactions. Dissecting the global transcriptional profiles of immune cell populations may provide insights(More)
BACKGROUND A major impediment to tuberculosis control in Africa is the difficulty in diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB), particularly in the context of HIV infection. We hypothesized that a unique host blood RNA transcriptional signature would distinguish TB from other diseases (OD) in HIV-infected and -uninfected patients, and that this could be the basis(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon gamma receptor 1 (IFNgammaR1) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency with allelic dominant and recessive mutations characterised clinically by severe infections with mycobacteria. We aimed to compare the clinical features of recessive and dominant IFNgammaR1 deficiencies. METHODS We obtained data from a large cohort of patients(More)
BACKGROUND Intravascular coagulation with infarction of skin, digits, and limbs is a characteristic feature of meningococcal sepsis. Children with meningococcal sepsis have higher than normal concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) in plasma. Combined with the widespread venous thrombosis, this finding suggests an impairment of(More)
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute self-limiting inflammatory disorder, associated with vasculitis, affecting predominantly medium-sized arteries, particularly the coronary arteries. In developed countries KD is the commonest cause of acquired heart disease in childhood. The aetiology of KD remains unknown, and it is currently believed that one or more as(More)