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To study the mechanism whereby odorants are encoded in the nervous system, we studied the glomerular-layer activity patterns in the rat olfactory bulb evoked by closely related odorants from different chemical families. These odorants had a common straight-chain hydrocarbon structure, but differed systematically in their functional groups. Neural activity(More)
In an effort to understand the means by which similar chemical odorants are encoded in the mammalian brain, we exposed rats to a homologous series of n-aliphatic acids and mapped the response of the entire olfactory bulb glomerular layer by using a high-resolution [14C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake technique. We found that these similar odorants evoked spatially(More)
Spatial activation patterns within the olfactory bulb are believed to contribute to the neural representation of odorants. In this study, we attempted to predict the perceptions of odorants from their evoked patterns of neural activity in the olfactory bulb. We first describe the glomerular activation patterns evoked by pairs of odorant enantiomers based on(More)
In order to determine whether molecular features of odorants are represented spatially in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, we used metabolic mapping of [14C] 2-deoxyglucose uptake in rats exposed to equal vapor concentrations of odorants differing systematically in chemical structure. The odorants were ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, isoamyl(More)
Systematic mapping studies involving 365 odorant chemicals have shown that glomerular responses in the rat olfactory bulb are organized spatially in patterns that are related to the chemistry of the odorant stimuli. This organization involves the spatial clustering of principal responses to numerous odorants that share key aspects of chemistry such as(More)
Organic acid odorants of differing carbon number produce systematically different spatial patterns of [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose uptake in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. Because increasing carbon number correlates with progressive increases in several molecular features, including hydrophobicity, length, and volume, we determined which of these(More)
When the major response domains in the rat olfactory bulb that are evoked by odorant enantiomers are compared, some of these odorant pairs do not show significantly different activity patterns. Such pairs are not spontaneously discriminated in a behavioral test. We show here that even these similar odorants appear to evoke different activity patterns when(More)
1. Neonatal rat pups were classically conditioned to an odor stimulus from postnatal day 1 (PN1) to PN18. Tactile stimulation (stroking) was used as the unconditioned stimulus. On PN19, mitral/tufted cell single-unit responses to the conditioned odor were examined in both conditioned and control pups. Recordings were made from mitral/tufted cells in two(More)
In vivo microdialysis sampling of the olfactory bulbs of awake rats on PND 3 revealed that olfactory stimulation alone does not alter extracellular norepinephrine (NE) levels. Tactile stimulation that is designed to mimic maternal interactions with the young does increase bulb NE and the combined odor and tactile stimulation further increases NE levels.(More)
In an effort to understand the olfactory code of rats, we collected more than 1,500,000 measurements of glomerular activity in response to 54 odorants selected to provide differences in functional groups and hydrocarbon structure. Each odorant evoked a unique response pattern by differentially stimulating clusters of glomeruli, called modules. Odorants(More)