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OBJECTIVES To establish reliability of the Tone Assessment Scale and modified Ashworth scale in acute stroke patients. SETTING A North Liverpool university hospital. PATIENTS Eighteen men and 14 women admitted with acute stroke and still in hospital at the study start date (median age, 74 yrs; median Barthel score, 8). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The(More)
OBJECTIVES To establish the prevalence of spasticity 12 months after stroke and examine its relationship with functional ability. DESIGN A cohort study of prevalence of spasticity at 12 months post stroke. SETTING Initially hospitalized but subsequently community-dwelling stroke survivors in Liverpool, UK. SUBJECTS One hundred and six consecutively(More)
BACKGROUND The active practice of task-specific motor activities is a component of current approaches to stroke rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES To determine if repetitive task training after stroke improves global, upper or lower limb function, and if treatment effects are dependent on the amount, type or timing of practice. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the(More)
BACKGROUND Urinary incontinence can affect 40-60% of people admitted to hospital after a stroke, with 25% still having problems on hospital discharge and 15% remaining incontinent at one year. OBJECTIVES To determine the optimal methods for treatment of urinary incontinence after stroke in adults. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the Cochrane Incontinence(More)
OBJECTIVES to establish the reliability of the modified Ashworth scale for measuring muscle tone in a range of muscle groups (elbow, wrist, knee and ankle; flexors and extensors) and of the Medical Research Council scale for measuring muscle power in the same muscle groups and their direct antagonists. DESIGN a cross-sectional study involving repeated(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure muscle tone in a cohort of patients 12 months after stroke and develop a preliminary model, using data recorded routinely after stroke, to predict who will develop spasticity. DESIGN A cohort study. SETTING Initially hospitalized but subsequently community-dwelling stroke survivors in Liverpool, United Kingdom. SUBJECTS One(More)
Effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist GR38032F (ondansetron) on chlordiazepoxide withdrawal were assessed in rats which received chlordiazepoxide b.i.d. for 21 days at doses up to 40 mg/kg per injection. Withdrawal signs recorded were: body weight and food intake, which fell and then recovered over 9 days. Saline or GR38032F (1.0, 0.1 or 0.01 mg/kg) were(More)
OBJECTIVE to evaluate a nurse-led management plan and care pathway for older people discharged from an Accident and Emergency Department after a fall. DESIGN randomized controlled trial. SETTING a large teaching hospital. SUBJECTS 348 consecutive patients aged 65 or over attending the Accident and Emergency Department with a fall. INTERVENTIONS we(More)
AIM This paper is a report of a study to determine the accuracy and utility of an observational screening tool (Signs of Depression Scale), when rated by nurses and carers for detecting depression in patients who have recently had a stroke. BACKGROUND Depression following a stroke is common and adversely affects recovery and rehabilitation. Identifying(More)
Nosocomial pneumonia is frequent and is associated with high mortality in intubated mechanically ventilated patients. To determine whether there is a significant relationship between subclinical aspiration from nasogastric feeding and development of nosocomial pneumonia, we studied 24 ventilated patients who received nasogastric feeding. Endotracheal(More)