Michael Leathley

Learn More
BACKGROUND The active practice of task-specific motor activities is a component of current approaches to stroke rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES To determine if repetitive task training after stroke improves global, upper or lower limb function, and if treatment effects are dependent on the amount, type or timing of practice. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the(More)
OBJECTIVES To establish reliability of the Tone Assessment Scale and modified Ashworth scale in acute stroke patients. SETTING A North Liverpool university hospital. PATIENTS Eighteen men and 14 women admitted with acute stroke and still in hospital at the study start date (median age, 74 yrs; median Barthel score, 8). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The(More)
OBJECTIVES To establish the prevalence of spasticity 12 months after stroke and examine its relationship with functional ability. DESIGN A cohort study of prevalence of spasticity at 12 months post stroke. SETTING Initially hospitalized but subsequently community-dwelling stroke survivors in Liverpool, UK. SUBJECTS One hundred and six consecutively(More)
OBJECTIVES to establish the reliability of the modified Ashworth scale for measuring muscle tone in a range of muscle groups (elbow, wrist, knee and ankle; flexors and extensors) and of the Medical Research Council scale for measuring muscle power in the same muscle groups and their direct antagonists. DESIGN a cross-sectional study involving repeated(More)
BACKGROUND Urinary incontinence can affect 40-60% of people admitted to hospital after a stroke, with 25% still having problems on hospital discharge and 15% remaining incontinent at one year. OBJECTIVES To determine the optimal methods for treatment of urinary incontinence after stroke in adults. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the Cochrane Incontinence(More)
Effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist GR38032F (ondansetron) on chlordiazepoxide withdrawal were assessed in rats which received chlordiazepoxide b.i.d. for 21 days at doses up to 40 mg/kg per injection. Withdrawal signs recorded were: body weight and food intake, which fell and then recovered over 9 days. Saline or GR38032F (1.0, 0.1 or 0.01 mg/kg) were(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine whether motivational interviewing (MI), a patient-centered counseling technique, can benefit patients' mood and mortality poststroke. METHODS This was a single-center, open, randomized, controlled trial. The setting was a hospital with a stroke unit. Four hundred eleven consecutive patients(More)
OBJECTIVE to evaluate a nurse-led management plan and care pathway for older people discharged from an Accident and Emergency Department after a fall. DESIGN randomized controlled trial. SETTING a large teaching hospital. SUBJECTS 348 consecutive patients aged 65 or over attending the Accident and Emergency Department with a fall. INTERVENTIONS we(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure muscle tone in a cohort of patients 12 months after stroke and develop a preliminary model, using data recorded routinely after stroke, to predict who will develop spasticity. DESIGN A cohort study. SETTING Initially hospitalized but subsequently community-dwelling stroke survivors in Liverpool, United Kingdom. SUBJECTS One(More)
BACKGROUND In the UK, overall stroke mortality has declined. A similar trend has been seen in coronary heart disease, although recent reports suggest this decline might be levelling off in middle-aged adults. AIM To investigate recent trends in stroke mortality among those aged 40-69 years in England. METHODS The authors used routine annual aggregated(More)