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OBJECTIVES To establish reliability of the Tone Assessment Scale and modified Ashworth scale in acute stroke patients. SETTING A North Liverpool university hospital. PATIENTS Eighteen men and 14 women admitted with acute stroke and still in hospital at the study start date (median age, 74 yrs; median Barthel score, 8). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The(More)
OBJECTIVES To establish the prevalence of spasticity 12 months after stroke and examine its relationship with functional ability. DESIGN A cohort study of prevalence of spasticity at 12 months post stroke. SETTING Initially hospitalized but subsequently community-dwelling stroke survivors in Liverpool, UK. SUBJECTS One hundred and six consecutively(More)
BACKGROUND The active practice of task-specific motor activities is a component of current approaches to stroke rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES To determine if repetitive task training after stroke improves global, upper or lower limb function, and if treatment effects are dependent on the amount, type or timing of practice. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the(More)
OBJECTIVES to establish the reliability of the modified Ashworth scale for measuring muscle tone in a range of muscle groups (elbow, wrist, knee and ankle; flexors and extensors) and of the Medical Research Council scale for measuring muscle power in the same muscle groups and their direct antagonists. DESIGN a cross-sectional study involving repeated(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure muscle tone in a cohort of patients 12 months after stroke and develop a preliminary model, using data recorded routinely after stroke, to predict who will develop spasticity. DESIGN A cohort study. SETTING Initially hospitalized but subsequently community-dwelling stroke survivors in Liverpool, United Kingdom. SUBJECTS One(More)
OBJECTIVE to evaluate a nurse-led management plan and care pathway for older people discharged from an Accident and Emergency Department after a fall. DESIGN randomized controlled trial. SETTING a large teaching hospital. SUBJECTS 348 consecutive patients aged 65 or over attending the Accident and Emergency Department with a fall. INTERVENTIONS we(More)
BACKGROUND Urinary incontinence can affect 40-60% of people admitted to hospital after a stroke, with 25% still having problems on hospital discharge and 15% remaining incontinent at one year. OBJECTIVES To determine the optimal methods for treatment of urinary incontinence after stroke in adults. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the Cochrane Incontinence(More)
BACKGROUND the recognition of stroke symptoms by the public and activation of the emergency medical services (EMS) are the most important factors in instigating pre-hospital stroke care. Studies have suggested that poor recognition of the warning signs of stroke is the main cause of delay in accessing the EMS. METHODS an integrative review of published(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that implementation of a practice guideline for blood gas measurement would decrease numbers and increase appropriateness of tests (according to criteria in the guideline) for up to 1 yr after introduction of the guideline. DESIGN Numbers of tests and appropriateness of each test were measured retrospectively during each(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine whether motivational interviewing, a patient-centered counseling technique, can benefit patients' mood 3 months after stroke. METHODS A single-center, open, randomized, controlled trial was conducted at a single hospital with a stroke unit. Subjects consisted of 411 consecutive patients on(More)