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In order to establish the relative distribution of a GFAP-negative population of astrocytes, and its change in gliotic tissue, sections of the stratum radiatum of the CA1 hippocampal layer of male, adult, Wistar rats were analyzed by immunocytochemical methods. Ten micrometer-thick sections were triple-stained to detect nuclei, glial fibrillary acidic(More)
Although Fingolimod is registered as a second-line drug in relapsing-remittend multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Europe there are no clinical studies available comparing Fingolimod (FTY) and Natalizumab (N). This observational cohort-study used health data routinely collected in outpatient neurology practices throughout Germany completing a treatment period of(More)
In this paper, we describe the Hugin Tool as an efficient tool for knowledge discovery through construction of Bayesian networks by fusion of data and domain expert knowledge. The Hugin Tool supports structural learning, parameter estimation, and adaptation of parameters in Bayesian networks. The performance of the Hugin Tool is illustrated using real-world(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon beta has been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is believed that immunomodulatory rather than antiviral activity of interferon beta is responsible for disease amelioration. The impact of interferon beta on the chemoattraction of immune cells has not been fully addressed. OBJECTIVE To address the influence of(More)
Alemtuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the surface molecule CD52, leads to a rapid depletion of immune cells in the innate and adaptive immune system. In phase 2 and 3 trials in multiple sclerosis (MS), infections have been reported more frequently in alemtuzumab than in interferon beta treated patients. Here we report two patients treated(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) currently requires long-term treatment with disease-modifying drugs, administered parenterally up to once daily. The need for regular self-injection can be a barrier to treatment for many patients. Autoinjectors can help patients overcome problems or concerns with self-injection and could, therefore, improve treatment(More)
Interhemispheric alpha asymmetry of both stutterers and non-stutterers measured preceding each of five massed oral readings of the same material was investigated. Preliminary results indicated a reduction of alpha over the left hemisphere for non-stutterers, while a reduction for stutterers was found for the right hemisphere. Present results, together with(More)