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Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a frequent disorder that causes significant morbidity. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in tinnitus generation are still under exploration. Electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies give increasing evidence for abnormal functioning both within the central auditory system and in(More)
Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an environmental sound source. Abnormal activity in central auditory pathways is considered as the neuronal correlate of tinnitus. However, there is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies for an additional involvement of the frontal cortex in the pathophysiology of tinnitus, especially concerning(More)
Neuroimaging studies of tinnitus suggest the involvement of wide-spread neural networks for perceptual, attentional, memory, and emotional processes encompassing auditory, frontal, parietal, and limbic areas. Despite sparse findings for tinnitus duration and laterality, tinnitus distress has been shown to be related to changes in non-auditory cortical(More)
Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a frequent disorder that causes significant morbidity and treatment is elusive. A large variety of different treatment options have been proposed and from most of them some patients benefit. However, a particular treatment that helps one patient may fail for others. This suggests that there are different forms(More)
Cerebral (18)F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has shown altered auditory pathway activity in tinnitus. However, the corresponding studies involved only small samples and analyses were restricted to the auditory cortex in most studies. Evidence is growing that also limbic, frontal, and parietal areas are involved in the pathophysiology(More)
BACKGROUND Different mechanisms have been proposed to be involved in tinnitus generation, among them reduced lateral inhibition and homeostatic plasticity. On a perceptual level these different mechanisms should be reflected by the relationship between the individual audiometric slope and the perceived tinnitus pitch. Whereas some studies found the tinnitus(More)
OBJECTIVES Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the temporal cortex has been proposed as a new treatment strategy for patients with chronic tinnitus. However, functional abnormalities in tinnitus patients also involve brain structures used for attentional and emotional processing, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.(More)
OBJECTIVES Depressive symptoms are common in individuals with tinnitus and may substantially aggravate their distress. The mechanisms, however, by which depression and tinnitus mutually interact are still not fully understood. METHODS Here we review neurobiological knowledge relevant for the interplay between depression and tinnitus. RESULTS(More)
Chronic tinnitus is a common condition with a high burden of disease. While many different treatments are used in clinical practice, the evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is low and the variance of treatment response between individuals is high. This is most likely due to the great heterogeneity of tinnitus with respect to clinical features as(More)
An inherent limitation of functional imaging studies is their correlational approach. More information about critical contributions of specific brain regions can be gained by focal transient perturbation of neural activity in specific regions with non-invasive focal brain stimulation methods. Functional imaging studies have revealed that tinnitus is related(More)