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Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a frequent disorder that causes significant morbidity. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in tinnitus generation are still under exploration. Electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies give increasing evidence for abnormal functioning both within the central auditory system and in(More)
There is widespread recognition that consistency between research centres in the ways that patients with tinnitus are assessed and outcomes following interventions are measured would facilitate more effective co-operation and more meaningful evaluations and comparisons of outcomes. At the first Tinnitus Research Initiative meeting held in Regensburg in July(More)
Neuroimaging studies of tinnitus suggest the involvement of wide-spread neural networks for perceptual, attentional, memory, and emotional processes encompassing auditory, frontal, parietal, and limbic areas. Despite sparse findings for tinnitus duration and laterality, tinnitus distress has been shown to be related to changes in non-auditory cortical(More)
Cerebral (18)F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has shown altered auditory pathway activity in tinnitus. However, the corresponding studies involved only small samples and analyses were restricted to the auditory cortex in most studies. Evidence is growing that also limbic, frontal, and parietal areas are involved in the pathophysiology(More)
OBJECTIVES Increasing evidence suggests that dysfunctions of the cortico-cerebello-thalamocortical circuit are involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. This study explores the effects of cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on cerebello-thalamocortical pathways. METHODS Ten healthy volunteers received(More)
Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an environmental sound source. Abnormal activity in central auditory pathways is considered as the neuronal correlate of tinnitus. However, there is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies for an additional involvement of the frontal cortex in the pathophysiology of tinnitus, especially concerning(More)
BACKGROUND Tinnitus affects 10% of the population, its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood, and treatment is elusive. Functional imaging has demonstrated a relationship between the intensity of tinnitus and the degree of reorganization in the auditory cortex. Experimental studies have further shown that tinnitus is associated with synchronized(More)
Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a frequent disorder that causes significant morbidity and treatment is elusive. A large variety of different treatment options have been proposed and from most of them some patients benefit. However, a particular treatment that helps one patient may fail for others. This suggests that there are different forms(More)
OBJECTIVES Depressive symptoms are common in individuals with tinnitus and may substantially aggravate their distress. The mechanisms, however, by which depression and tinnitus mutually interact are still not fully understood. METHODS Here we review neurobiological knowledge relevant for the interplay between depression and tinnitus. RESULTS(More)
Effects of facial nerve transection were studied on muscle responses evoked by electrical stimulation in the primary motor cortex (MI) of adult rats. In intact animals, activated muscles varied according to the somatotopic representation map, and responses were restricted to the contralateral side. Unilateral transection of the facial nerve extinguished(More)