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Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a frequent disorder that causes significant morbidity. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in tinnitus generation are still under exploration. Electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies give increasing evidence for abnormal functioning both within the central auditory system and in(More)
There is widespread recognition that consistency between research centres in the ways that patients with tinnitus are assessed and outcomes following interventions are measured would facilitate more effective co-operation and more meaningful evaluations and comparisons of outcomes. At the first Tinnitus Research Initiative meeting held in Regensburg in July(More)
Cerebral (18)F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has shown altered auditory pathway activity in tinnitus. However, the corresponding studies involved only small samples and analyses were restricted to the auditory cortex in most studies. Evidence is growing that also limbic, frontal, and parietal areas are involved in the pathophysiology(More)
OBJECTIVES Increasing evidence suggests that dysfunctions of the cortico-cerebello-thalamocortical circuit are involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. This study explores the effects of cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on cerebello-thalamocortical pathways. METHODS Ten healthy volunteers received(More)
We followed the course in 100 consecutive patients with cervical dystonia (CD) after they were initially treated with botulinum toxin (BTX) in the form of Dysport 10 to 12 years ago. A total of 4 patients had died, and 6 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 90 patients, 57 (63%) were still treated with BTX. In the patients treated at one centre over the(More)
Neuroimaging studies of tinnitus suggest the involvement of wide-spread neural networks for perceptual, attentional, memory, and emotional processes encompassing auditory, frontal, parietal, and limbic areas. Despite sparse findings for tinnitus duration and laterality, tinnitus distress has been shown to be related to changes in non-auditory cortical(More)
Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an environmental sound source. Abnormal activity in central auditory pathways is considered as the neuronal correlate of tinnitus. However, there is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies for an additional involvement of the frontal cortex in the pathophysiology of tinnitus, especially concerning(More)
OBJECTIVES Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the temporal cortex has been proposed as a new treatment strategy for patients with chronic tinnitus. However, functional abnormalities in tinnitus patients also involve brain structures used for attentional and emotional processing, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.(More)
OBJECTIVES Depressive symptoms are common in individuals with tinnitus and may substantially aggravate their distress. The mechanisms, however, by which depression and tinnitus mutually interact are still not fully understood. METHODS Here we review neurobiological knowledge relevant for the interplay between depression and tinnitus. RESULTS(More)
Functional somatic syndromes are characterized by high morbidity due to various, fluctuating symptoms without objective somatic findings. There is increasing evidence for the contribution of emotional and cognitive functions to symptom formation, which has been well established in the perception of pain. In addition to their involvement in various other(More)