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Alcohol synergistically enhances the progression of liver disease and the risk for liver cancer caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the molecular mechanism of this synergy remains unclear. Here, we provide the first evidence that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is induced by hepatocyte-specific transgenic (Tg) expression of the HCV nonstructural protein(More)
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) contains a viroid-like circular RNA that is presumed to replicate via a rolling circle replication mechanism mediated by cellular RNA polymerases. However, the exact mechanism of rolling circle replication for HDV RNA and viroids is not clear. Using our recently described cDNA-free transfection system (L. E. Modahl and M. M. Lai,(More)
Nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) serves dual functions in viral RNA replication and virus assembly. Here, we demonstrate that HCV replication complex along with NS5A and Core protein was transported to the lipid droplet (LD) through microtubules, and NS5A-Core complexes were then transported from LD through early-to-late endosomes(More)
The cause of intraventricular hemorrhage in term neonates is poorly understood. Among 29 neonates of at least 36 weeks' gestation with intraventricular hemorrhage, 9 (31%) had cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Of the 26 neonates who underwent computed tomography or magnetic resonance studies, those with thalamic hemorrhage were more likely to have sinovenous(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces inflammatory signals, leading to hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinomas, and lymphomas. The mechanism of HCV involvement in the host's innate immune responses has not been well characterized. In this study, we analyzed expression and regulation of the entire panel of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in human B cells following HCV(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver diseases and B-lymphocyte proliferative disorders, including mixed cryoglobulinemia and B-cell lymphoma. It has been suggested that HCV infects human cells through the interaction of its envelope glycoprotein E2 with a tetraspanin molecule CD81, the putative viral receptor. Here, we show(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that causes severe liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV uses an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to replicate its genome and an internal ribosomal entry site to translate its proteins. HCV infection is characterized by an increase in the concentrations of reactive oxygen(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinomas and non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphomas. Previously, we reported that HCV infection causes cellular DNA damage and mutations, which are mediated by nitric oxide (NO). NO often damages mitochondria, leading to induction of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs)(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and B-cell lymphomas in a significant number of patients. Previously we have shown that HCV infection causes double-stranded DNA breaks and enhances the mutation frequency of cellular genes, including proto-oncogenes and immunoglobulin genes. To determine the mechanisms, we(More)