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An increasing number of animal and plant viruses have been shown to undergo RNA-RNA recombination, which is defined as the exchange of genetic information between nonsegmented RNAs. Only some of these viruses have been shown to undergo recombination in experimental infection of tissue culture, animals, and plants. However, a survey of viral RNA structure(More)
  • M M Lai
  • 1995
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) contains a circular, viroid-like RNA genome, the only animal viral RNA of its kind. It possesses a ribozyme activity, which can autocatalytically cleave and ligate itself. The ribozyme has a unique structural requirement different from other known ribozymes. HDV RNA undergoes RNA-dependent RNA replication via a double rolling(More)
The lipid raft membrane has been shown to be the site of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication. The mechanism of formation of the replication complex is not clear. We show here that the formation of the HCV RNA replication complex on lipid raft (detergent-resistant membranes) requires interactions among the HCV nonstructural (NS) proteins and may be(More)
Most isolates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are resistant to interferon, the only available therapy, but the mechanism underlying this resistance has not been defined. Here it is shown that the HCV envelope protein E2 contains a sequence identical with phosphorylation sites of the interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR and the translation(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is known to be a multifunctional protein, besides being a component of viral nucleocapsids. Previously, we have shown that the core protein binds to the cytoplasmic domain of lymphotoxin beta receptor, which is a member of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. In this study, we demonstrated that the core(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies of HCV replication and pathogenesis have so far been hampered by the lack of an efficient tissue culture system for propagating HCV in vitro. Although HCV is primarily a hepatotropic virus, an increasing body of evidence suggests that HCV(More)
Several continuous tissue culture cell lines were established from methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcomas of Japanese quail. The lines consist either of fibroblastic elements, round refractile cells or polygonal cells. They show transformed characteristics in agar colony formation and hexose uptake, and most are tumorigenic. Their cloning efficiency in(More)
Translation of most eukaryotic mRNAs and many viral RNAs is enhanced by their poly(A) tails. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains a positive-stranded RNA genome which does not have a poly(A) tail but has a stretch of 98 nucleotides (X region) at the 3'-untranslated region (UTR), which assumes a highly conserved stem-loop structure. This X region binds a(More)
The 5'-most gene, gene 1, of the genome of murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), is presumed to encode the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. We have determined the complete sequence of this gene of the JHM strain by cDNA cloning and sequencing. The total length of this gene is 21,798 nucleotides long, which includes two overlapping, large open(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A is a phosphoprotein that possesses a cryptic trans-activation activity. To investigate its potential role in viral replication, we searched for the cellular proteins interacting with NS5A protein by yeast two-hybrid screening of a human hepatocyte cDNA library. We identified a newly discovered soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive(More)