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Hepatocellular carcinoma arises in patients as a consequence of long-standing preexisting liver illnesses, including viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or metabolic disease. In such preexisting liver diseases, TGF-β plays an important role in orchestrating a favorable microenvironment for tumor cell growth and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).(More)
Tumor cells transfected to express immunostimulatory cytokines, or admixed with similarly modified bystander cells, are able to induce immune responses against unmodified tumor cells in animal models. For treatment of human patients, a vaccine composed of autologous tumor cells and IL-2-secreting allogeneic fibroblasts was developed. Autologous tumor cells(More)
Glioma-initiating cells (GICs), also called glioma stem cells, are responsible for tumor initiation, relapse, and therapeutic resistance. Here, we show that TGF-β inhibitors, currently under clinical development, target the GIC compartment in human glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Using patient-derived specimens, we have determined the gene responses to TGF-β(More)
Human xenografts Calu6 (non-small cell lung cancer) and MX1 (breast cancer) were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice and LY2157299, a new type I receptor TGF-beta kinase antagonist, was administered orally. Plasma levels of LY2157299, percentage of phosphorylated Smad2,3 (pSmad) in tumour, and tumour size were used to establish a semi-mechanistic(More)
One of the main complications in patients with liver fibrosis is the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to HCC is important in order to be able to design new pharmacological agents serving either to prevent or mitigate the outcome of this malignancy. The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)(More)
We compared for the first time the therapeutic potential of a specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, rolipram, with anti-VLA-4 and anti-IL-5 in a model of secondary allergen exposure of previously sensitized and challenged mice. To address these issues, mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) (primary challenge). Six weeks later,(More)
The mechanisms regulating airway function are complex and still poorly understood. In diseases such as asthma, involvement of immune-dependent mechanisms has been suggested in causing changes in airway responsiveness to bronchoconstrictors. We now demonstrate that gammadelta T cells can regulate airway function in an alphabeta T cell-independent manner,(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling regulates a wide range of biological processes. TGF-β plays an important role in tumorigenesis and contributes to the hallmarks of cancer, including tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and escape of immune surveillance. There are several pharmacological approaches to(More)
We measured transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-dependent biomarkers in plasma and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to identify suitable pharmacodynamic markers for future clinical trials with TGF-beta inhibitors. Forty-nine patients with bone metastasis were enrolled in the study, including patients with breast (n=23) and prostate cancer(More)