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Hepatocellular carcinoma arises in patients as a consequence of long-standing preexisting liver illnesses, including viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or metabolic disease. In such preexisting liver diseases, TGF-β plays an important role in orchestrating a favorable microenvironment for tumor cell growth and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).(More)
Glioma-initiating cells (GICs), also called glioma stem cells, are responsible for tumor initiation, relapse, and therapeutic resistance. Here, we show that TGF-β inhibitors, currently under clinical development, target the GIC compartment in human glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Using patient-derived specimens, we have determined the gene responses to TGF-β(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of long-acting IM methylprednisolone to tapering oral methylprednisolone in adult asthmatic patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). METHODS Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single IM dose of 160 mg depot methylprednisolone vs 8-day tapering of a total dose of 160 mg oral(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling regulates a wide range of biological processes. TGF-β plays an important role in tumorigenesis and contributes to the hallmarks of cancer, including tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and escape of immune surveillance. There are several pharmacological approaches to(More)
We compared for the first time the therapeutic potential of a specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, rolipram, with anti-VLA-4 and anti-IL-5 in a model of secondary allergen exposure of previously sensitized and challenged mice. To address these issues, mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) (primary challenge). Six weeks later,(More)
One of the main complications in patients with liver fibrosis is the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to HCC is important in order to be able to design new pharmacological agents serving either to prevent or mitigate the outcome of this malignancy. The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)(More)
BACKGROUND The combination of galunisertib, a transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptor (R)1 kinase inhibitor, and lomustine was found to have antitumor activity in murine models of glioblastoma. METHODS Galunisertib (300 mg/day) was given orally 14 days on/14 days off (intermittent dosing). Lomustine was given as approved. Patients were randomized in a(More)
PURPOSE Enhanced tumor cell survival through expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) is a hallmark of cancer. Survivin, an IAP absent from most normal tissues, is overexpressed in many malignancies and associated with a poorer prognosis. We report the first-in-human dose study of LY2181308, a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) directed(More)
Survivin is expressed in tumor cells, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), regulates mitosis, and prevents tumor cell death. The antisense oligonucleotide sodium LY2181308 (LY2181308) inhibits survivin expression and may cause cell cycle arrest and restore apoptosis in AML. In this study, the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics/efficacy of(More)
Human xenografts Calu6 (non-small cell lung cancer) and MX1 (breast cancer) were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice and LY2157299, a new type I receptor TGF-beta kinase antagonist, was administered orally. Plasma levels of LY2157299, percentage of phosphorylated Smad2,3 (pSmad) in tumour, and tumour size were used to establish a semi-mechanistic(More)