Michael L. Summers

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Heterocysts, sites of nitrogen fixation in certain filamentous cyanobacteria, are limited to a heterotrophic metabolism, rather than the photoautotrophic metabolism characteristic of cyanobacterial vegetative cells. The metabolic route of carbon catabolism in the supply of reductant to nitrogenase and for respiratory electron transport in heterocysts is(More)
The vegetative cells of the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme can differentiate into three mutually exclusive cell types: nitrogen-fixing heterocysts, spore-like akinetes, and motile hormogomium filaments. A DNA microarray consisting of 6,893 N. punctiforme genes was used to identify the global transcription patterns at single time points in the(More)
Two transcriptional reporter shuttle vectors were constructed for the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme using the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter. Both the ampicillin- and kanamycin-resistant versions of the plasmid allow promoters to be directionally cloned into a multiple cloning site preceding a promoterless gfp gene using an(More)
Recent work in this laboratory has shown that the gene coding for acetate kinase (ackA) in Sinorhizobium meliloti is up-regulated in response to phosphate limitation. Characterization of the region surrounding ackA revealed that it is adjacent to pta, which codes for phosphotransacetylase, and that these two genes are part of an operon composed of at least(More)
Akinetes are spore-like resting cells formed by certain filamentous cyanobacteria that have increased resistance to environmental stress. They can be found at low frequencies in dense cultures experiencing low light or phosphate limitation, but also form at high frequencies in a zwf mutant strain of Nostoc punctiforme following dark incubation in the(More)
Inclusions of neutral lipids termed lipid droplets (LDs) located throughout the cell were identified in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme by staining with lipophylic fluorescent dyes. LDs increased in number upon entry into stationary phase and addition of exogenous fructose indicating a role for carbon storage, whereas high-light stress did not(More)
The investigation examined isokinetic (IK) and nonisokinetic (NIK) strength training programs for the inversion (INV) and eversion (EV) muscles on pronation during running. Seventy-seven volunteers were videotaped running on a treadmill at 3.8 m.s-1 and total pronation (delta beta PRO) was computed. Eighteen heel-strike runners with the largest values of(More)
Cyanobacterial lipid droplets (LDs) are packed with hydrophobic energy-dense compounds and have great potential for biotechnological expression and the compartmentalization of high value compounds. Nostoc punctiforme normally accumulates LDs containing neutral lipids, and small amounts of heptadecane, during the stationary phase of growth. In this study, we(More)
Nostoc punctiforme is a filamentous cyanobacterium that is capable of dark heterotrophy and cellular differentiation into nitrogen-fixing heterocysts, motile hormogonia, or spore-like akinetes. The study of akinete differentiation at the molecular level has been limited by the asynchronous development and limited number of akinetes formed within a filament.(More)
We show that the cAMP receptor protein (Crp) binds to DNA as several different conformers. This situation has precluded discovering a high correlation between any sequence property and binding affinity for proteins that bend DNA. Experimentally quantified affinities of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cAMP receptor protein (SyCrp1), the Escherichia coli Crp(More)