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Phosphorylation is thought to be an essential first step in the prompt deactivation of photoexcited rhodopsin. In vitro, the phosphorylation can be catalyzed either by rhodopsin kinase (RK) or by protein kinase C (PKC). To investigate the specific role of RK, we inactivated both alleles of the RK gene in mice. This eliminated the light-dependent(More)
Vertebrate retinal photoreceptors recover from photoexcitation-induced hydrolysis of guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) by resynthesizing cyclic GMP, which reopens cation channels that have been closed by light. Activation of guanylate cyclase by light-induced depletion of cytosolic calcium is a key event in this recovery process. This cyclase has(More)
Six types of setae and one type of cuticular depression were examined on the lateral antennule of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus using scanning electron microscopy. The organization and ultrastructure of the innervation of the most numerous setal type, the aesthetasc, were investigated using light- and transmission electron microscopy. Each(More)
One of the membrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs), RetGC, is expressed predominantly in photoreceptors. No extracellular ligand has been described for RetGC, but it is sensitive to activation by a soluble 24-kDa protein (p24) and is inhibited by Ca2+. This enzyme is, therefore, thought to play a role in resynthesizing cGMP for photoreceptor recovery or(More)
Heterotrimeric G proteins couple various receptors to intracellular effector molecules. Although the role of the G alpha subunit in effector activation, guanine nucleotide exchange and GTP hydrolysis has been well studied, the cellular functions of the G beta subunits are less well understood. G beta gamma dimers bind G alpha subunits and anchor them to the(More)
Neural proliferation and differentiation control protein-1 (NPDC-1) is a protein expressed primarily in brain and lung and whose expression can be correlated with the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Embryonic differentiation in brain and lung has classically been linked to retinoid signaling, and we have recently characterized(More)
The Rit and Rin proteins comprise a distinct and evolutionarily conserved subfamily of Ras-related small GTPases. Although we have defined a role for Rit-mediated signal transduction in the regulation of cell proliferation and transformation, the function of Rin remains largely unknown. Because we demonstrate that Rin is developmentally regulated and(More)
Adipose tissue macrophages are associated with insulin resistance and are linked to changes in the extracellular matrix. To better characterize adipose macrophages, the extracellular matrix, and adipocyte-macrophage interactions, gene expression from adipose tissue and the stromal vascular fraction was assessed for markers of inflammation and fibrosis, and(More)
The Rit, Rin, and Ric proteins comprise a distinct and evolutionarily conserved subfamily of the Ras-like small G-proteins. Although these proteins share the majority of core effector domain residues with Ras, recent studies suggest that Rit uses novel effector pathways to regulate NIH3T3 cell proliferation and transformation, while the functions of Rin and(More)
CONTEXT Insulin resistance is associated with inflammation, fibrosis, and hypoxia in adipose tissue. OBJECTIVE This study was intended to better characterize the extracellular matrix (ECM) and vascularity of insulin-resistant adipose tissue. DESIGN Adipose expression of collagens, elastin, and angiogenic factors was assessed using real-time RT-PCR and(More)