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To better understand the mechanisms that regulate stem cell identity and function, we sought to identify genes that are preferentially expressed by stem cells and critical for their function in multiple tissues. Prdm16 is a transcription factor that regulates leukaemogenesis, palatogenesis and brown-fat development, but which was not known to be required(More)
Orthostatic intolerance is common when astronauts return to Earth: after brief spaceflight, up to two-thirds are unable to remain standing for 10 min. Previous research suggests that susceptible individuals are unable to increase their systemic vascular resistance and plasma noradrenaline concentrations above pre-flight upright levels. In this study, we(More)
We used an algebraic model of resting heart rate (HRr), HRr-mn (HRo), to compare resting parasympathetic (n) and sympathetic (m) influence, intrinsic heart rate (HRo), and resting autonomic balance (Abal) in ten endurance-trained (ET) and ten nontrained (NT) men. The values of m, n, and Abal were determined by selective pharmacological blockade with(More)
High-resolution near-wall fluorescent microparticle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) was used in mouse cremaster muscle venules in vivo to measure velocity profiles in the red cell-depleted plasma layer near the endothelial lining. micro-PIV data of the instantaneous translational speeds and radial positions of fluorescently labeled microspheres (0.47 microm)(More)
We show that many salient hemodynamic flow properties, which have been difficult or impossible to assess in microvessels in vivo, can be estimated by using microviscometry and fluorescent microparticle image velocimetry in microvessels >20 microm in diameter. Radial distributions in blood viscosity, shear stress, and shear rate are obtained and used to(More)
Seventeen healthy supine subjects performed graded Valsalva maneuvers. In four subjects, transesophageal echographic aortic cross-sectional areas decreased during and increased after straining. During the first seconds of straining, when aortic cross-sectional area was declining and peripheral arterial pressure was rising, peroneal sympathetic muscle(More)
Mefloquine is currently the drug-of-choice for malaria prophylaxis among military personnel. Four active duty military personnel receiving 250 mg mefloquine per week were killed in the line of duty under combat conditions. Samples of blood, bile, liver, kidney, muscle, brain, spleen and lung were submitted to the Division of Forensic Toxicology, Office of(More)
The purpose of this study was to identify whether baroreceptor unloading was responsible for less efficient heat loss responses (i.e., skin blood flow and sweat rate) previously reported during inactive compared with active recovery after upright cycle exercise (Carter R III, Wilson TE, Watenpaugh DE, Smith ML, and Crandall CG. J Appl Physiol 93: 1918-1929,(More)
When humans switched from hunting honeybee colonies living scattered in the wild to keeping them in hives crowded in apiaries, they may have greatly increased disease transmission between colonies. The effects of clustering colonies were studied. Two groups of 12 colonies, with hives crowded or dispersed, were established in a common environment and left(More)
Stimulation of the vagus nerve in animals causes prolongation of sinus cycle length, atrioventricular nodal conduction and ventricular refractoriness. Vagal stimulation appears to have a protective effect in animal models of sudden death. The electrophysiologic effects of enhanced vagal activity on right ventricular (RV) refractoriness in man have not been(More)