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—Pattern recognition generally requires that objects be described in terms of a set of measurable features. The selection and quality of the features representing each pattern have a considerable bearing on the success of subsequent pattern classification. Feature extraction is the process of deriving new features from the original features in order to(More)
For most prokaryotic organisms, amino acid biosynthesis represents a significant portion of their overall energy budget. The difference in the cost of synthesis between amino acids can be striking, differing by as much as 7-fold. Two prokaryotic organisms, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, have been shown to preferentially utilize less costly amino(More)
The interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental results for metabolomics studies requires intensive signal processing and multivariate data analysis techniques. A key step in this process is the quantification of spectral features, which is commonly accomplished by dividing an NMR spectrum into several hundred integral regions or bins.(More)
Various biguanide derivatives are used as antihyperglycemic and antimalarial drugs (e.g., 1,1-dimethyl biguanide (metformin), phenylethyl biguanide (phenformin), N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N'-(isopropyl)-imidodicarbonimidic diamide (proguanil)); however, no common mechanism has been suggested in these controversial therapeutic actions. Biguanides bind endogenous(More)
Protein products of highly expressed genes tend to favor amino acids that have lower average biosynthetic costs (i.e., they exhibit metabolic efficiency). While this trend has been observed in several studies, the specific sites where cost-reducing substitutions accumulate have not been well characterized. Toward that end, weighted costs in conserved and(More)
Statistical pattern recognition techniques classify objects in terms of a representative set of features. The selection of features to measure and include can have a significant effect on the cost and accuracy of an automated classifier. Our previous research has shown that a hybrid between a k-nearest-neighbors (knn) classifier and a genetic algorithm (GA)(More)
A key element of bioinformatics research is the extraction of meaningful information from large experimental data sets. Various approaches, including statistical and graph theoretical methods, data mining, and computational pattern recognition, have been applied to this task with varying degrees of success. Using a novel classifier based on the Bayes(More)
Prokaryotic organisms preferentially utilize less energetically costly amino acids in highly expressed genes. Studies have shown that the proteome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae also exhibits this behavior, but only in broad terms. This study examines the question of metabolic efficiency as a proteome-shaping force at a finer scale, examining whether trends(More)
The goal of this study was to determine if fecal metabolite and microbiota profiles can serve as biomarkers of human intestinal diseases, and to uncover possible gut microbe-metabolite associations. We employed proton nuclear magnetic resonance to measure fecal metabolites of healthy children and those diagnosed with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel(More)
Water-mediated ligand interactions are essential to biological processes, from product displacement in thymidylate synthase to DNA recognition by Trp repressor, yet the structural chemistry influencing whether bound water is displaced or participates in ligand binding is not well characterized. Consolv, employing a hybrid k-nearest-neighbors(More)