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Partition coefficients are required for developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic models used to assess the uptake, distribution, tabolism, and elimination of volatile chemicals in mammals. A gas-phase vial equilibration technique is presented for determining the liquid:air and tissue:air partition coefficients for low-molecular-weight volatile(More)
Dihalomethanes are metabolized by two major pathways: an oxidative, cytochrome P-450-mediated pathway that has been previously thought to yield only CO, and a glutathione (GSH)-dependent one that yields CO2. Both give 2 mol of halide ion. We studied the kinetic properties of the two pathways in vivo by exposing male rats to various inhaled concentrations of(More)
Methylene chloride (dichloromethane, DCM) is metabolized by two pathways: one dependent on oxidation by mixed function oxidases (MFO) and the other dependent on glutathione S-transferases (GST). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model based on knowledge of these pathways was used to describe the metabolism of DCM in four mammalian species(More)
Furan is both hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic in rats. The kinetics of furan biotransformation by male F-344 rats were studied in vivo and in vitro in order to understand target tissue dosimetry. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for furan in rats was developed from gas uptake studies using initial furan concentrations of 100, 500,(More)
Ethylene (ET) is a gaseous olefin of considerable industrial importance. It is also ubiquitous in the environment and is produced in plants, mammals, and humans. Uptake of exogenous ET occurs via inhalation. ET is biotransformed to ethylene oxide (EO), which is also an important volatile industrial chemical. This epoxide forms hydroxyethyl adducts with(More)
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model describing the disposition of chloroform in mice, rats, and humans was developed. This model was designed to facilitate extrapolations from high doses, such as those used in chronic rodent studies, to low doses that humans may be exposed to in the workplace or the environment. Kinetic constants for mice and rats(More)
Dichloromethane (methylene chloride, DCM) and other dihalomethanes are metabolized to carbon monoxide (CO) which reversibly binds hemoglobin and is eliminated by exhalation. We have developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model which describes the kinetics of CO, carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO), and parent dihalomethane, and have applied this(More)
A modified version of the original physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model by Andersen et al. (1987) has been developed and used in conjunction with previously published human kinetic data for dichloromethane (DCM) metabolism and to assess interindividual variability in the rate of oxidative metabolism. Time-course data for 13 volunteers (10(More)
1,3-Butadiene (BD), a rodent carcinogen, is metabolized to mutagenic and potentially DNA-reactive epoxides, including butadiene monoepoxide (BMO) and butadiene diepoxide. A physiological model containing five tissue groups (liver, lung, fat, slowly perfused tissues and rapidly perfused tissues) and blood was developed to describe uptake and metabolism of(More)
Experimental solvent:air and tissue:air partition coefficients for 25 halogenated methanes, ethanes, and ethylenes in saline solution; olive oil; and rat blood, muscle, liver, and fat tissues have been examined using theoretical molecular modeling techniques. The metabolic rate constant, Vmax, was also investigated by these techniques for 19 chlorinated(More)