Michael L. Gargas

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Partition coefficients are required for developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic models used to assess the uptake, distribution, tabolism, and elimination of volatile chemicals in mammals. A gas-phase vial equilibration technique is presented for determining the liquid:air and tissue:air partition coefficients for low-molecular-weight volatile(More)
Methylene chloride (dichloromethane, DCM) is metabolized by two pathways: one dependent on oxidation by mixed function oxidases (MFO) and the other dependent on glutathione S-transferases (GST). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model based on knowledge of these pathways was used to describe the metabolism of DCM in four mammalian species(More)
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model describing the disposition of chloroform in mice, rats, and humans was developed. This model was designed to facilitate extrapolations from high doses, such as those used in chronic rodent studies, to low doses that humans may be exposed to in the workplace or the environment. Kinetic constants for mice and rats(More)
Dichloromethane (methylene chloride, DCM) and other dihalomethanes are metabolized to carbon monoxide (CO) which reversibly binds hemoglobin and is eliminated by exhalation. We have developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model which describes the kinetics of CO, carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO), and parent dihalomethane, and have applied this(More)
1,3-Butadiene (BD), a rodent carcinogen, is metabolized to mutagenic and potentially DNA-reactive epoxides, including butadiene monoepoxide (BMO) and butadiene diepoxide. A physiological model containing five tissue groups (liver, lung, fat, slowly perfused tissues and rapidly perfused tissues) and blood was developed to describe uptake and metabolism of(More)
In vivo metabolic constants were determined in male Fischer rats for five chemicals: 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), diethyl ether (DE), bromochloromethane (BCM), methyl chloroform (MC), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). A closed recirculated exposure system was used to collect a series of uptake curves for each chemical at a range of initial concentrations.(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA), a high-volume chemical used to make polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins, and other chemicals has been reported to be weakly estrogenic. To investigate the effects of long-term exposure to Bisphenol A, a multigeneration study was conducted in which fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to water concentrations of BPA in the(More)
Dihalomethanes are metabolized by two major pathways: an oxidative, cytochrome P-450-mediated pathway that has been previously thought to yield only CO, and a glutathione (GSH)-dependent one that yields CO2. Both give 2 mol of halide ion. We studied the kinetic properties of the two pathways in vivo by exposing male rats to various inhaled concentrations of(More)
Quantitation of chemical vapor penetration through skin is necessary for assessment of health hazards involved in some occupational environments. Information on penetration of vapors through human skin is minimal because human exposures are not sanctioned. We have investigated the whole-body dermal penetration of styrene, xylene, toluene, perchloroethylene,(More)
Dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD), a widespread polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon, caused tumors in the liver and other sites when administered chronically to rats at doses as low as 0.01 microgram/kg/day. It functions in combination with a cellular protein, the Ah receptor, to alter gene regulation, and this resulting modulation of gene(More)