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During a 2-year chronic inhalation study on methylene chloride (2000 or 0 ppm; 6 hr/day, 5 days/week), gas-uptake pharmacokinetic studies and tissue partition coefficient determinations were conducted on female B6C3F1, mice after 1 day, 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years of exposure. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling coupled with Monte(More)
Cytotoxicity in the nasal epithelium is frequently observed in rodents exposed to volatile organic acids and esters by inhalation. An interspecies, hybrid computational fluid dynamics and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (CFD-PBPK) dosimetry model for inhaled ethyl acrylate (EA) is available for estimating internal dose measures for EA, its metabolite(More)
1,4-Dioxane (CAS No. 123-91-1) is used primarily as a solvent or as a solvent stabilizer. It can cause lung, liver, and kidney damage at sufficiently high exposure levels. Two physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of 1,4-dioxane and its major metabolite, hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA), were published in 1990. These models have uncertainties(More)
A basic PBPK model for the dosimetry of organic acids in discrete areas of the brain was constructed using 2,4-D as a model compound. The PBPK model describes distribution of 2,4-D throughout the body and within discrete areas of the brain. The brain compartments in the model were the hypothalamus, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, forebrain, brainstem, and(More)
There is increasing concern for the potential adverse health effects of human exposures to chemical mixtures. To better understand the complex interactions of chemicals within a mixture, it is essential to develop a research strategy which provides the basis for extrapolating data from single chemicals to their behavior within the chemical mixture.(More)
A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental(More)
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