Michael Kummer

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A large body of evidence from in vitro studies suggests that GABA is depolarizing during early postnatal development. However, the mode of GABA action in the intact developing brain is unknown. Here we examine the in vivo effects of GABA in cells of the upper cortical plate using a combination of electrophysiological and Ca(2+)-imaging techniques. We report(More)
The development of genetically modified mice in which subpopulations of cortical neurons are labelled by fluorescent proteins has greatly facilitated single-cellular imaging and electrophysiology studies in vitro and in vivo. However, the parallel visualization of both inhibitory and excitatory neocortical neurons remains problematic. We here provide an(More)
Two-photon laser-scanning microscopy enables to record neuronal network activity in three-dimensional space while maintaining single-cellular resolution. One of the proposed approaches combines galvanometric x-y scanning with piezo-driven objective movements and employs hardware feedback signals for position monitoring. However, readily applicable methods(More)
Neuronal network activity in the developing brain is generated in a discontinuous manner. In the visual cortex during the period of physiological blindness of immaturity, this activity mainly comprises retinally triggered spindle bursts or Ca(2+) clusters thought to contribute to the activity-dependent construction of cortical circuits. In spite of(More)
Fifty-five patients suffering from refractory chronic back pain took part in a double-blind, multiple-dose, randomised, cross-over study to compare the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose capsule preparation containing 500 mg paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2) and 30 mg codeine phosphate 1/2 H2O (CAS 41444-62-6) (talvosilen forte, test preparation) with a(More)
Twenty-four (24) Caucasian male subjects completed a single-blind, randomised, three-treatment, three-period, cross-over study. In each treatment phase, subjects received a single dose of 144 mg pipamperone dihydrochloride (CAS 2448-68-2) (equivalent to 120 mg pipamperone; CAS 1893-33-0) as either the reference product (3 x 40 mg tablets), test product A (3(More)
We study the role of privacy in the market for mobile applications. For such programs used with smartphones and tablet PCs a very important market has emerged. Yet, neither the role of privacy on that market is well understood, nor do we have empirical evidence regarding its role therein. We exploit data on 300,000 mobile applications and almost 600 "(More)
In an open, non-randomized 3-way cross-over study, the bioavailability of 2-oxo-pyrrolidine-1-acetamide (piracetam, Encetrop) from two solid oral formulations and one liquid formulation was tested in 8 healthy male volunteers. The area under the concentration time curve, which is defined to be a measurement for bioequivalence among the three tested galenic(More)
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