Learn More
Systems that extract structured information from natural language passages have been highly successful in specialized domains. The time is opportune for developing analogous applications for molecular biology and genomics. We present a system, GENIES, that extracts and structures information about cellular pathways from the biological literature in(More)
We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding(More)
We describe a system which automatically identifies gene and protein names in journal articles, an important and non-trivial first step in knowledge extraction of protein and gene actions. Our system uses a database of gene and protein names and is based on BLAST [Altschul et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 25 (1997) 3389-3402], a popular tool for DNA and protein(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of the gene normalization task is to link genes or gene products mentioned in the literature to biological databases. This is a key step in an accurate search of the biological literature. It is a challenging task, even for the human expert; genes are often described rather than referred to by gene symbol and, confusingly, one gene name(More)
We recently proposed that competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) sequester microRNAs to regulate mRNA transcripts containing common microRNA recognition elements (MREs). However, the functional role of ceRNAs in cancer remains unknown. Loss of PTEN, a tumor suppressor regulated by ceRNA activity, frequently occurs in melanoma. Here, we report the discovery of(More)
The immense growth in the volume of research literature and experimental data in the field of molecular biology calls for efficient automatic methods to capture and store information. In recent years, several groups have worked on specific problems in this area, such as automated selection of articles pertinent to molecular biology, or automated extraction(More)
A major challenge in human genetics is identifying the molecular basis of common heritable disorders. In contrast to rare single-gene diseases, multifactorial disorders are thought to arise from the combined effect of multiple gene variants, such that any single variant may have only a modest effect on disease susceptibility. We present a method to identify(More)
Sophisticated information technologies are needed for effective data acquisition and integration from a growing body of the biomedical literature. Successful term identification is key to getting access to the stored literature information, as it is the terms (and their relationships) that convey knowledge across scientific articles. Due to the complexities(More)
DNA methylation is an important component of epigenetic modifications that influences the transcriptional machinery and is aberrant in many human diseases. Several methods have been developed to map DNA methylation for either limited regions or genome-wide. In particular, antibodies specific for methylated CpG have been successfully applied in genome-wide(More)
We report on whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 213 melanomas. Our analysis established NF1, encoding a negative regulator of RAS, as the third most frequently mutated gene in melanoma, after BRAF and NRAS. Inactivating NF1 mutations were present in 46% of melanomas expressing wild-type BRAF and RAS, occurred in older patients and showed a distinct pattern of(More)