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BACKGROUND Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 to enhance antitumour immunity. Our aim was to assess the use of ipilimumab after radiotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that progressed after docetaxel chemotherapy. METHODS We did a multicentre, randomised,(More)
X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency characterized by increased susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In affected males, primary EBV infection leads to the uncontrolled proliferation of virus-containing B cells and reactive cytotoxic T cells, often culminating in the development of high-grade lymphoma. The XLP(More)
Background: Treatment options for patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) include a rapidly expanding repertoire of medical, surgical and supportive care measures. Design: To provide timely and evidence-based recommendations for the diagnostic workup and treatment of patients with MBC, an international expert panel reviewed and discussed the evidence(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in a germ-line allele of the BRCA1 gene contribute to the familial breast cancer syndrome. However, the prevalence of these mutations is unknown in women with breast cancer who do not have the features of this familial syndrome. We sought BRCA1 mutations in women who were given a diagnosis of breast cancer at an early age, because early(More)
BACKGROUND Germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes predispose women to breast cancer. BRCA1 mutations are found in approximately 12 percent of women with breast cancer of early onset, and the specific mutation causing a deletion of adenine and guanine (185delAG), which is present in 1 percent of the Ashkenazi Jewish population, contributes to 21(More)
Dysregulation of apoptosis may support tumorigenesis by allowing cells to live beyond their normally intended life span. The various receptors for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) are located on chromosome 8p21.2, a region frequently deleted in ovarian cancer. Lack of expression of TRAIL receptor 1 (death receptor 4, DR4)(More)
BACKGROUND TRAIL, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, is a recently identified cytokine that preferentially kills transformed cells while sparing most normal cells. METHODS We investigated the ability of TRAIL alone and TRAIL in combination with cytotoxic drugs to induce apoptosis in six ovarian cancer cell lines. To get some insight(More)
Immunosuppression has been often associated with the course of malignant diseases. In the present study, the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to mitogenic stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) was assessed prospectively in 90 patients with stage I-III breast cancer. Whereas PHA-induced proliferation of PBMCs(More)