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The prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have both been implicated in cognitive control, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons in both areas while monkeys performed a task that required them to switch between trials in which they had to look toward a flashed stimulus (prosaccades) and(More)
Bone-forming cells are organized in a multicellular network interconnected by gap junctions. In these cells, gap junctions are formed by connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin45 (Cx45). Cx43 gap junctions form pores that are more permeable to negatively charged dyes such as Lucifer yellow and calcein than are Cx45 pores. We studied whether altering gap junctional(More)
Connexins are gap junction proteins that form aqueous channels to interconnect adjacent cells. Rat osteoblasts express connexin43 (Cx43), which forms functional gap junctions at the cell surface. We have found that ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells, UMR 106-01 osteosarcoma cells, and primary rat calvarial osteoblastic cells also express another gap junction(More)
Subjects sometimes fail to suppress a reflexive saccade towards the flashed stimulus in an anti-saccade task. Here, we studied how error rates in the anti-saccade task varied as a function of saccadic probability. Ten subjects performed 200 anti-saccade trials for each of three saccade-direction probability conditions (20%, 50%, and 80%). We found that as(More)
Of the many functions ascribed to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the ability to override automatic stimulus-driven behavior is one of the most prominent. This ability has been investigated extensively with the antisaccade task, which requires suppression of saccades toward suddenly appearing visual stimuli. Convergent lines of evidence have(More)
Connexins form gap junction channels that link neighboring cells into an intercellular communication network. Many cells that express multiple connexins produce heteromeric channels containing at least two connexins, which provides a means to fine tune gap junctional communication. Formation of channels by multiple connexins is controlled at two levels: by(More)
tGolgin-1 (trans-Golgi p230, golgin-245) is a member of a family of large peripheral membrane proteins that associate with the trans-Golgi network (TGN) via a C-terminal GRIP domain. Some GRIP-domain proteins have been implicated in endosome-to-TGN transport but no function for tGolgin-1 has been described. Here, we show that tGolgin-1 production is(More)
To define further the mechanisms of gap junction protein (connexin (Cx)) oligomerization without pharmacologic disruption, we have examined the transport and assembly of connexin constructs containing C-terminal di-lysine-based endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (HKKSL) or ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (AKKFF) targeting sequences. By immunofluorescence(More)
BACKGROUND Adhesion of leukocytes to the extracellular matrix and to other cells is mediated by members of the integrin family of adhesion molecules. Src family kinases are activated upon integrin-mediated adhesion. In lymphocytes, CD45 is a leukocyte-specific transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that activates Src family kinases associated with(More)