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The prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have both been implicated in cognitive control, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons in both areas while monkeys performed a task that required them to switch between trials in which they had to look toward a flashed stimulus (prosaccades) and(More)
Bone-forming cells are organized in a multicellular network interconnected by gap junctions. In these cells, gap junctions are formed by connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin45 (Cx45). Cx43 gap junctions form pores that are more permeable to negatively charged dyes such as Lucifer yellow and calcein than are Cx45 pores. We studied whether altering gap junctional(More)
In contrast to most multimeric transmembrane complexes that oligomerize in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) oligomerizes in an aspect of the Golgi apparatus. The mechanisms that prevent oligomerization of Cx43 and related connexins in the ER are not well understood. Also, some studies suggest that connexins can(More)
Connexin43 (Cx43) is a gap junction protein that forms multimeric channels that enable intercellular communication through the direct transfer of signals and metabolites. Although most multimeric protein complexes form in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Cx43 seems to exit from the ER as monomers and subsequently oligomerizes in the Golgi complex. This(More)
Connexins are gap junction proteins that form aqueous channels to interconnect adjacent cells. Rat osteoblasts express connexin43 (Cx43), which forms functional gap junctions at the cell surface. We have found that ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells, UMR 106-01 osteosarcoma cells, and primary rat calvarial osteoblastic cells also express another gap junction(More)
Transmembrane proteins known as claudins play a critical role in tight junctions by regulating paracellular barrier permeability. The control of claudin assembly into tight junctions requires a complex interplay between several classes of claudins, other transmembrane proteins and scaffold proteins. Claudins are also subject to regulation by(More)
Amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) play an important role in lung sodium transport. Sodium transport is closely regulated to maintain an appropriate fluid layer on the alveolar surface. Both alveolar type I and II cells have several different sodium-permeable channels in their apical membranes that play a role in normal lung physiology(More)
Cells that express multiple connexins have the capacity to form heteromeric (mixed) gap junction hemichannels. We used a dominant negative connexin construct, consisting of bacterial beta-galactosidase fused to the C terminus of connexin43 (Cx43/beta-gal), to examine connexin compatibility in NIH 3T3 cells. Cx43/beta-gal is retained in a perinuclear(More)
tGolgin-1 (trans-Golgi p230, golgin-245) is a member of a family of large peripheral membrane proteins that associate with the trans-Golgi network (TGN) via a C-terminal GRIP domain. Some GRIP-domain proteins have been implicated in endosome-to-TGN transport but no function for tGolgin-1 has been described. Here, we show that tGolgin-1 production is(More)
It is generally assumed that particles > 1 micron elicit a phagocytic response. To determine whether this is the case, we examined the uptake and transport of IgG-opsonized polystyrene beads of defined size, ranging from 0.2 to 3 microns, by mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. The kinetics of opsonized bead internalization were comparable for each of the(More)