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BACKGROUND S100beta protein is expressed constitutively by brain astrocytes. Elevated S100beta levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum reported after head trauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke were correlated with the extent of brain damage. Because elevated serum S100beta also was shown to indicate blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in the absence(More)
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an important therapeutic option for individuals with refractory epilepsy who have failed multiple antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The intricate relationship of the vagus nerve to cardiac function raises concern that vagal stimulation may affect cardiac rhythm and function. Previous pre- and postmarketing studies have not shown(More)
Intraosseous infusion has become an increasingly popular technique for vascular access in critically ill or injured children. Continuing acceptance of this procedure by physicians and possibly by prehospital personnel may lead to inadvertent placement through the immature growth plate. In our study, we intentionally penetrated the epiphyseal plate with the(More)
We studied a model of hemorrhagic encephalopathy of prematurity (EP) that closely recapitulates findings in humans with hemorrhagic EP. This model involves tandem insults of 20 min intrauterine ischemia (IUI) plus an episode of elevated venous pressure induced by intraperitoneal glycerol on post-natal day (P) 0. We examined Sur1 expression, which is(More)
OBJECT Patients requiring neurosurgical intervention are known to be at increased risk for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and attendant morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the most catastrophic sequela of DVT and is the direct cause of death in 16% of all in-hospital mortalities. Protocols for DVT screening and early detection, as well as(More)
Traumatic central cord syndrome (TCCS), regardless of its biomechanics, is the most frequently encountered incomplete spinal cord injury. Patients with TCCS present with disproportionate weakness of the upper extremities, and variable sensory loss and bladder dysfunction. Fractures and/or subluxations, forced hyperextension, and herniated nucleus pulposus(More)
OBJECT The object of this study was to assess outcomes in patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated by Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS); lesions were stratified by size, symptomatology, and Spetzler-Martin (S-M) grade. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 102 patients treated for an AVM with single-dose or(More)
OBJECT Encephalopathy of prematurity (EP) is common in preterm, low birth weight infants who require postnatal mechanical ventilation. The worst types of EP are the hemorrhagic forms, including choroid plexus, germinal matrix, periventricular, and intraventricular hemorrhages. Survivors exhibit life-long cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Stent-assisted coiling and balloon-assisted coiling are 2 well-established techniques for treatment of wide-neck intracranial aneurysms. A direct comparative analysis of angiographic outcomes with the 2 techniques has not been available. We compare the angiographic outcomes of wide-neck aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coiling(More)
Germinal matrix (GM) hemorrhage (GMH) is a major cause of mortality and of life-long morbidity from cerebral palsy. GMH is typically preceded by hypoxic/ischemic events and is believed to arise from rupture of weakened veins in the GM. In the CNS, hypoxia/ischemia up-regulate sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1)-regulated NCCa-ATP channels in microvascular(More)