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BACKGROUND Increased iron deposition has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), based on visual analysis of signal reduction on T(2)-weighted images. R(2)* relaxometry allows to assess brain iron accumulation quantitatively. OBJECTIVE To investigate regional brain iron deposition in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a severe demyelinating disease, represents itself with optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Serum NMO-IgG autoantibodies (Abs), a specific finding in NMO patients, target the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is expressed as a long (M-1) or a short (M-23) isoform. (More)
OBJECTIVES Abnormal high cerebral iron deposition may be implicated in chronic neurologic disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). R2* relaxometry has been recently validated in a postmortem study to indicate brain iron accumulation in a quantitative manner. We used this technique to assess brain iron levels in different stages of MS and healthy(More)
BACKGROUND Lesion dissemination in time and space represents a key feature and diagnostic marker of multiple sclerosis (MS). The correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion load and disability is only modest, however. Strategic lesion location might at least partially account for this 'clinico-radiologic paradox'. OBJECTIVES Here we used a(More)
Increased iron deposition might be implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent development of MRI enabled to determine brain iron levels in a quantitative manner, which has put more interest on studying the role of iron in MS. Evidence for abnormal iron homeostasis in MS comes also from analyses of iron and iron-related proteins in CSF and blood and(More)
Adhesion molecule mediated leukocyte migration into the central nervous system is considered to be a critical step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We measured plasma levels of the soluble adhesion molecules sPECAM-1, sP-selectin and sE-selectin in 166 MS patients and in 36 healthy blood donors with ELISA. sPECAM-1, sP-selectin and(More)
PURPOSE To apply quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) in the basal ganglia of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and relate the findings to R2* mapping with regard to the sensitivity for clinical and morphologic measures of disease severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS The local ethics committee approved this study, and all subjects gave written(More)
Iron deposition in the human brain tissue occurs in the process of normal aging and in many neurodegenerative diseases. Elevated iron levels in certain brain regions are also an increasingly recognized finding in multiple sclerosis (MS). The exact mechanism(s) for this phenomenon and its implication in terms of pathophysiology and clinical significance are(More)
BACKGROUND Axonal damage is considered a major cause of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and may start early in the disease. Specific biomarkers for this process are of great interest. OBJECTIVE To study if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for axonal damage reflect and predict disease progression already in the earliest stages of the disease,(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS), the most important human inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, is characterized by various clinical disease courses, inhomogeneous and unpredictable therapeutic effects, heterogenous genetic backgrounds and immunopathogenetic subtypes as demonstrated by neuropathology. Because of this heterogeneity of MS,(More)