Michael Khalil

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OBJECTIVES Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can occur at early stages. Whereas functional reorganization with disease progression has been described for the motor system in MS using fMRI, no such studies exist for cognition. We attempted to assess the concept of functional reorganization concerning cognition using a(More)
Iron deposition in the human brain tissue occurs in the process of normal aging and in many neurodegenerative diseases. Elevated iron levels in certain brain regions are also an increasingly recognized finding in multiple sclerosis (MS). The exact mechanism(s) for this phenomenon and its implication in terms of pathophysiology and clinical significance are(More)
BACKGROUND It has been reported that in some patients with MS who develop neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against interferon beta (IFNbeta), antibody levels can initially increase and then decrease thereafter even when treatment is continued. OBJECTIVE To determine whether NAb titre correlates with time to reversion to NAb negativity in patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a severe demyelinating disease, represents itself with optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Serum NMO-IgG autoantibodies (Abs), a specific finding in NMO patients, target the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is expressed as a long (M-1) or a short (M-23) isoform. (More)
Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) has been proposed as a biomarker associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndromes, based on the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels in clinically isolated syndrome patients who later converted to multiple sclerosis compared to those who(More)
BACKGROUND Increased iron deposition has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), based on visual analysis of signal reduction on T(2)-weighted images. R(2)* relaxometry allows to assess brain iron accumulation quantitatively. OBJECTIVE To investigate regional brain iron deposition in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS), the most important human inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, is characterized by various clinical disease courses, inhomogeneous and unpredictable therapeutic effects, heterogenous genetic backgrounds and immunopathogenetic subtypes as demonstrated by neuropathology. Because of this heterogeneity of MS,(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive deficits are frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS) and have been associated with morphologic brain changes. Less information exists on their extent and relation to MRI findings in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). It is also unclear if structural changes as detected by magnetization transfer (MT) imaging may provide an additional(More)
BACKGROUND Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) affect efficacy of interferon-beta (IFN-b) treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. NAbs evolve in up to 44% of treated patients, usually between 6-18 months on therapy. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether early binding antibody (BAb) titers or different IFN-b biomarkers predict NAb evolution. METHODS We(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible role of soluble CD14 (sCD14) in multiple sclerosis (MS). We found that sCD14 serum levels measured by ELISA were higher in MS patients compared to neurological and healthy controls. Within the MS group sCD14 levels were increased in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive MS compared to primary(More)