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We show here that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is involved in patterning the developing chick limb. During early stages of limb development, mesenchymal expression of the Bmp-2 gene is restricted to the posterior part of the bud, in a domain that colocalizes with the polarizing region. The polarizing region is a group of cells at the posterior(More)
Snakes are limbless predators, and many species use venom to help overpower relatively large, agile prey. Snake venoms are complex protein mixtures encoded by several multilocus gene families that function synergistically to cause incapacitation. To examine venom evolution, we sequenced and interrogated the genome of a venomous snake, the king cobra(More)
There has been a resurgence of interest in comparative embryology. It is now important to be able to compare gene expression in different species at similar developmental stages. One phenomenon which may make it difficult to compare embryos in this way is heterochrony--a change in developmental timing during evolution. It is not clear whether heterochrony(More)
Among extant reptiles only two lineages are known to have evolved venom delivery systems, the advanced snakes and helodermatid lizards (Gila Monster and Beaded Lizard). Evolution of the venom system is thought to underlie the impressive radiation of the advanced snakes (2,500 of 3,000 snake species). In contrast, the lizard venom system is thought to be(More)
Six neurotoxic peptides (Tx3-1 to Tx3-6) were purified from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer by a combination of gel filtration, reverse phase FPLC on PEP-RPC and PRO-RPC columns, reverse phase HPLC on Vydac C18, and ion exchange HPLC on cationic and anionic columns. These toxins caused different neurological symptoms in mice after(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) superfamily which are involved in a range of developmental processes including modelling of the skeleton. We show here that Bmp-2 is expressed in mesenchyme surrounding early cartilage condensations in the developing chick limb, and that Bmp-4 is expressed in the(More)
Embryos of different species of vertebrate share a common organisation and often look similar. Adult differences among species become more apparent through divergence at later stages. Some authors have suggested that members of most or all vertebrate clades pass through a virtually identical, conserved stage. This idea was promoted by Haeckel, and has(More)
Many biologists assume, as Darwin did, that natural selection acts mainly on late embryonic or postnatal development. This view is consistent with von Baer's observations of morphological divergence at late stages. It is also suggested by the conserved morphology and common molecular genetic mechanisms of pattern formation seen in embryos. I argue here,(More)
The current study provides a detailed description of the pattern of exploratory behaviors encountered in adult zebrafish when exposed to a novel/unfamiliar environment using the light/dark box and open field tests. We also document the impact of an acute stressor (restraint stress) given just prior the onset of behavioral testing. We report the following(More)
The light/dark preference test is commonly used to assess anxiety-like phenotypes and validate the pharmacological effects of neuroactive compounds. This test has been recently adapted for adult zebrafish but has not yet been characterized and pharmacologically validated for young juvenile zebrafish. In the present study, we provide a detailed description(More)