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The first T cell response to transmitted/founder virus contributes to the control of acute viremia in HIV-1 infection
TLDR
Kinetic analysis and mathematical modeling of virus immune escape showed that the contribution of CD8 T cell–mediated killing of productively infected cells was earlier and much greater than previously recognized and that it contributed to the initial decline of plasma virus in acute infection.
CD86 and CD80 Differentially Modulate the Suppressive Function of Human Regulatory T Cells1
TLDR
The data show that CD80 and CD86 have opposing functions through CD28 and CTLA-4 on Treg, an observation that has significant implications for manipulation of immune responses and tolerance in vivo.
Vertical T cell immunodominance and epitope entropy determine HIV-1 escape.
TLDR
It is explained how CD8+ T cells can exert significant and sustained HIV-1 pressure even when escape is very slow and that within an individual, the impacts of other T cell factors on HIV- 1 escape should be considered in the context of immunodominance.
Relationship between Functional Profile of HIV-1 Specific CD8 T Cells and Epitope Variability with the Selection of Escape Mutants in Acute HIV-1 Infection
TLDR
Interestingly, only the magnitude of the total and not of the poly-functional T-cell responses was significantly associated with the selection of escape mutants, but the high contribution of MIP-1β-producing CD8+ T-cells to the total response suggests that mechanisms not limited to cytotoxicity could be exerting immune pressure during acute infection.
Fitness Costs and Diversity of the Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) Response Determine the Rate of CTL Escape during Acute and Chronic Phases of HIV Infection
TLDR
It is found that the rate of viral escape from CTL responses in a given patient decreases dramatically from acute infection to the viral set point at 1 year after the infection.
HIV Evolution in Early Infection: Selection Pressures, Patterns of Insertion and Deletion, and the Impact of APOBEC
TLDR
This work investigates the diversification of HIV-1 env coding sequences in 81 very early B subtype infections previously shown to have resulted from transmission or expansion of single viruses or two closely related viruses, and highlights the role of CTL escape and hypermutation in shaping viral evolution during the establishment of new infections.
Elevation of Intact and Proteolytic Fragments of Acute Phase Proteins Constitutes the Earliest Systemic Antiviral Response in HIV-1 Infection
TLDR
Analysis of unique plasma donor panels spanning the eclipse and viral expansion phases revealed very early alterations in plasma proteins in AHI, providing evidence for a first wave of host anti-viral defense occurring in the eclipse phase of AHI prior to systemic activation of other immune responses.
An Early HIV Mutation within an HLA-B*57-Restricted T Cell Epitope Abrogates Binding to the Killer Inhibitory Receptor 3DL1
TLDR
The results imply that during HIV-1 infection, some early-emerging variants could affect KIR-HLA interaction, with possible implications for immune recognition.
Exocytosis of CTLA-4 Is Dependent on Phospholipase D and ADP Ribosylation Factor-1 and Stimulated during Activation of Regulatory T Cells1
TLDR
The data suggest that CTLA-4 may be stored in a specialized compartment in regulatory T cells that can be triggered rapidly for deployment to the PM in a phospholipase D- and ADP ribosylation factor-1-dependent manner.
Impact of immune escape mutations on HIV-1 fitness in the context of the cognate transmitted/founder genome
TLDR
A broad spectrum of fitness costs to CTL escape mutations in T/F viral genomes are revealed, similar to recent findings reported for neutralizing antibody escape mutations, and highlight the extraordinary plasticity and adaptive potential of the HIV-1 genome.
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