Michael K. Gowan

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Power dissipation is rapidly becoming a limiting factor in high performance microprocessor design due to ever increasing device counts and clock rates. The 21264 is a third generation Alpha microprocessor implementation, containing 15.2 million transistors and operating at 600 MHz. This paper describes some of the techniques the Alpha design team utilized(More)
Three generations of Alpha microprocessors have been designed using a proven custom design methodology. The performance of these microprocessors was optimized by focusing on high-frequency design. The Alpha instruction set architecture facilitates high clock speed, and the chip organization for each generation was carefully chosen to meet critical paths.(More)
This paper describes an Itanium processor implemented in 65 nm process with 8 layers of Cu interconnect. The 21.5 mm by 32.5 mm die has 2.05B transistors. The processor has four dual-threaded cores, 30 MB of cache, and a system interface that operates at 2.4 GHz at 105 C. High speed serial interconnects allow for peak processor-to-processor bandwidth of 96(More)
The circuit techniques used to implement a 600MHz, out-of-order, superscalar RISC Alpha microprocessor are described. Innovative logic and circuit design created a chip that attains 30+ SpecInt95 and 50+ SpecFP95, and supports a secondary cache bandwidth of 6.4GB/s. Microarchitectural techniques were used to optimize latencies and cycle time, while a(More)
A 1.75 MByte L2 cache has been designed and fabricated as part of the Alpha 21364 microprocessor[1] (Figure 1), in a .18m bulk CMOS process. The cache was designed to run at 1.2 GHz, and pass-1 samples confirm this. While Alpha CPUs are known primarily for high speed, the combination of package constraints and a tight schedule forced careful attention to(More)
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