Michael K. Cahalan

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Since the introduction of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to the operating room in the early 1980s,1-4 its effectiveness as a clinical monitor to assist in the hemodynamic management of patients during general anesthesia and its reliability to make intraoperative diagnoses during cardiac operations has been well established.5-26 In recognition of the(More)
Little information is available about the incidence of severe adverse outcomes, and even less information is available about the identification and quantification of independent predictors of severe perioperative adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify and quantitate independent predictors of severe perioperative adverse outcomes in a(More)
A prospective, stratified, randomized clinical trial of the safety and efficacy of four general anesthetic agents (enflurane, fentanyl, halothane, and isoflurane) was conducted in 17,201 patients (study population). Patients were studied before, during, and after anesthesia for up to 7 days. Nineteen patients died (0.11%), and in seven of these (0.04%) the(More)
Introduction and Overview When expertly utilized, perioperative echocardiography can lead to improved outcome in patients requiring cardiovascular surgery and in those suffering perioperative cardiovascular instability. However, prior publications have not specified the requisite training for perioperative echocardiography. Therefore, the American Society(More)
The electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of a new inhaled anesthetic are of interest because of the potential of such agents to produce excitatory (convulsant) activity and because of the potential usefulness of the EEG as an indicator of anesthetic depth and cerebral activity. Accordingly, we examined the EEG in 12 healthy, young male volunteers during(More)
To determine whether pulmonary venous flow and mitral inflow measured by transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography can be used to estimate mean left atrial pressure (LAP), we prospectively studied 47 consecutive patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. We correlated Doppler variables of pulmonary venous flow and mitral inflow with simultaneously(More)
UNLABELLED Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a major determinant of outcome in cardiac surgery. The location and mechanism of mitral lesions determine the approach to various repairs and their feasibility. Because of incomplete evaluations or change in patient condition, detailed intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination of the mitral(More)
We asked if desflurane with or without nitrous oxide at 0.83, 1.24, and 1.66 MAC prevented cardiovascular responses to stimulation. We measured cardiac output, heart rate, systemic arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial blood pressure, and systemic vascular resistance in six healthy male volunteers before (control) and at 0, 1,(More)
The cardiovascular actions of three concentrations of desflurane (formerly I-653), a new inhalation anesthetic, were examined in 12 unmedicated normocapnic, normothermic male volunteers. We compared the effects of 0.83, 1.24, and 1.66 MAC desflurane with measurements obtained while the same men were conscious. Desflurane caused a dose-dependent increase in(More)
To determine whether transesophageal echocardiography could be used to estimate intraoperative cardiac output, the authors studied 35 consecutive patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery (coronary artery disease [n = 22], aortic valve disease [n = 5], mitral valve stenosis [n = 5], peripheral vascular disease [n = 3]). Two-dimensional echocardiographic(More)