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Although several factors are known to influence nonuniformity of ventilation, including lung mechanical properties (regional structure and compliance), external factors (chest wall, pleural pressure, heart), and ventilatory parameters (tidal and preinspiratory volume, flow rate), their relative contributions are poorly understood. We studied five excised,(More)
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered the 'signature injury' of combat veterans that have served during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prevalence of mTBI is due in part to the common exposure to high explosive blasts in combat zones. In addition to the threats of blunt impact trauma caused by flying objects and the head itself being(More)
RATIONALE At present, bronchoscopic approaches to lung volume reduction (LVR) create airway obstruction to achieve parenchyma collapse, avoiding many risks of surgical LVR. However, LVR by these methods is limited by temporary or incomplete collapse and/or residual atelectatic and scarred tissue volumes. Heat-induced ablation of lung tissue is currently(More)
Recent studies using microspheres in dogs, pigs and goats have demonstrated considerable heterogeneity of pulmonary perfusion within isogravitational planes. These studies demonstrate a minimal role of gravity in determining pulmonary blood flow distribution. To test whether a gravitational gradient would be more apparent in an animal with large vertical(More)
BACKGROUND Nitrite (NO2) is a physiologic source of nitric oxide and protects against ischemia-reperfusion injuries. We hypothesized that nitrite would be protective in a rat model of ventilator-induced lung injury and sought to determine if nitrite protection is mediated by enzymic catalytic reduction to nitric oxide. METHODS Rats were anesthetized and(More)
As an inflammatory airway disease, asthma is expected to be associated with an increase in airway blood flow. We therefore compared airway mucosal blood flow (Qaw) among normal subjects (n = 11) and patients with stable asthma receiving (n = 13) or not receiving (n = 10) long-term inhaled glucocorticosteroid (GS) therapy. Qaw was calculated from the uptake(More)
AIM To assess the effects of dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-(1,3)(1,6)-D-glucan supplementation (MacroGard(®)) on mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) intestinal microbiota and ultrastructure of the enterocyte apical brush border. METHODS AND RESULTS Carp were fed either a control diet or diets supplemented with 0.1, 1 or 2% w/w MacroGard(®).(More)
Oleic acid causes permeability pulmonary edema in the lung, resulting in impairment of gas-exchange and ventilation-perfusion heterogeneity and mismatch. Previous studies have shown that by using the multiple-breath helium washout (MBHW) technique, ventilation inhomogeneity (VI) can be quantitatively partitioned into two components, i.e.,(More)
The Trembler-j (Tr-j) mouse is a naturally occurring mutant with a point mutation in the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene causing severe peripheral nerve demyelination. It is a genetically homologous murine model for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT 1A). Our prior pilot studies using stimulated single-fiber needle electromyograpy (SSFEMG) showed(More)
The trembler-j mouse is a spontaneously occurring, demyelinating mutant secondary to a point mutation involving a leucine for proline substitution in the first transmembrane domain of the peripheral-myelin protein-22 (PMP-22) gene. It is considered to be a model for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), largely based upon pathologic observations.(More)