Michael John James

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BACKGROUND For many persons who wish to obtain the health benefits provided by dietary n-3 fatty acids, daily ingestion of fish or fish oil is not a sustainable long-term approach. To increase the number of sustainable dietary options, a land-based source of n-3 fatty acids that is effective in increasing tissue concentrations of the long-chain n-3 fatty(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with impaired clearance of β-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain, a process normally facilitated by apolipoprotein E (apoE). ApoE expression is transcriptionally induced through the action of the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and liver X receptors in coordination with retinoid X receptors(More)
Many antiinflammatory pharmaceutical products inhibit the production of certain eicosanoids and cytokines and it is here that possibilities exist for therapies that incorporate n-3 and n-9 dietary fatty acids. The proinflammatory eicosanoids prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) are derived from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA),(More)
The effect of a flaxseed oil-based diet on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) synthesis was examined in healthy volunteers. Use of flaxseed oil in domestic food preparation for 4 wk inhibited TNF alpha and IL-1 beta production by approximately 30%. Fish-oil supplementation (9 g/d) continued for a further 4 wk; TNF(More)
Because overactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD), dysregulation of stress neuromediators may play a mechanistic role in the pathophysiology of AD. However, the effects of stress on tau phosphorylation are poorly understood, and the relationship between corticosterone and corticotropin-releasing(More)
Postpartum changes in the concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), TGF-beta2, and prostaglandin E2 in 257 human milk samples collected longitudinally from 49 healthy mothers during the first 12 wk of lactation were determined by ELISA or RIA. The proinflammatory cytokines(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the potential for dietary n-3 fats to be component of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS Studies of encapsulated fish oil use in RA were reviewed and critiqued, and possible biochemical mechanisms for fish oil effects were examined. The potential for use of n-3 fats was evaluated within a dietary framework rather than a(More)
The conversion of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) is known to involve desaturation and elongation steps. Although there is evidence that genes for these steps can be regulated by extremes of dietary PUFA, the degree to which there is meaningful regulation of LCPUFA levels in tissues by(More)
The two cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2, both metabolize arachidonic acid to PGH(2), the common substrate for thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), prostacyclin (PGI(2)), and PGE(2) synthesis. We characterized the synthesis of these prostanoids in HUVECs in relation to COX-1 and COX-2 activity. Untreated HUVEC expressed only COX-1, whereas addition of(More)
An open-label study reported that ingestion of a fish oil concentrate decreased the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. However, a general cardiac surgery population involves valve and CABG surgeries. We undertook a double-blinded randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of fish oil(More)