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1. Octopuses can be trained to discriminate between white and black discs given at successive trials when the food rewards and shocks are delayed for as much as 30″. There are slight signs of learning even with delays of 60″. 2. The amount of information acquired from each attack (at white or black) decreased with delay in reward. 3. The tendency to attack(More)
Despite the very considerable difficulties presented by the basic molluscan anatomy and the possession of a blood pigment with an oxygen carrying capacity that never exceeds 4.5 vols%, the cephalopod circulatory system contrives to deliver oxygen at a rate fully comparable with that of an active fish. This is achieved by adding accessory pumps to push blood(More)
SUMMARY Octopus vulgaris can regulate its oxygen uptake in a closed respirometer down to a P02 of less than 70 mmHg. As the tankwater P02 falls the hearts slow down. Pulse amplitudes and mean pressures fall in the afferent bran-chial vessels and in the dorsal aorta. Despite behavioural changes — expansion of the interbrachial web and extension of the arms —(More)
  • M J Wells
  • 1980
The circulatory system of cephalopods is based on a trio of hearts, with two pairs of associated ganglia linked to the CNS by a pair of visceral nerves. The beat of the hearts was recorded from free-moving octopuses before and after surgical removal or disconnexion of elements of the nervous system. Severing the visceral nerves does not stop the hearts,(More)
1. The respiration ofOctopus vulgaris was investigated, particular attention being given to the role of the blood in the uptake and transport of oxygen. Measurements were made on free moving animals. Oxygen consumption was recorded and blood sampled with indwelling cannulae in pre and post branchial (aortic) vessels. 2. In normoxia the mean values for(More)
The concentrations of 13-cis-retinoic acid and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)retinamide in serum and tissues from mice were measured after oral dosing with 10 mg/kg. Serum levels of the drugs reached their maxima within 15-30 min and then declined in an exponential fashion with t1/2 values of 19 min and 2.9 hr, respectively. Tissue levels of 13-cis-retinoic acid(More)
A series of 4- aminobenzamides of some simple primary and secondary amines were prepared and evaluated for anticonvulsant effects. The compounds were tested in mice against seizures induced by electroshock and pentylenetetrazole ( metrazole ) and in the rotorod assay for neurologic deficit. For those N-alkyl amides tested, 4-amino-N- amylbenzamide (6) was(More)
Varying degrees of neurologic function spontaneously recovers in humans and animals during the days and months after spinal cord injury (SCI). For example, abolished upper limb somatosensory potentials (SSEPs) and cutaneous sensations can recover in persons post-contusive cervical SCI. To maximize recovery and the development/evaluation of repair(More)
1. Octopus vulgaris can be forced into precocious maturity by removal of the subpedunculate lobe from the brain, an operation that releases the optic glands from inhibition, and allows them to secrete a gonadotropin. 2. 14C-leucine was injected into the bloodstream of immature animals and its subsequent incorporation into muscle protein followed by taking(More)
The safety and efficacy were assessed of 5-day cycles of subcutaneous (sc) interleukin-2 (IL-2) every 8 weeks in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected outpatients with >200 CD4 cells/mm3. Immunologic, virologic, and toxicity parameters were measured in 18 patients receiving standard antiretrovirals plus 5-day courses of sc IL-2 (3-18 MIU/day) every 2(More)