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With the development of a new generation of hydroxyethyl starches (HES), there has been renewed interest in their clinical potential. High doses of first- and second-generation HES were associated with adverse effects on renal function, coagulation, and tissue storage, thereby limiting their clinical applicability. Newer HES products have lower molar(More)
In both genetic and idiopathic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), considerable evidence supports the involvement of alpha-synuclein, electron transport chain complex I, protein aggregation, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. To investigate alterations in the transcription of genes that comprise these pathways, we performed gene expression profiling and(More)
BACKGROUND The role of fluids in trauma resuscitation is controversial. We compared resuscitation with 0.9% saline vs hydroxyethyl starch, HES 130/0.4, in severe trauma with respect to resuscitation, fluid volume, gastrointestinal recovery, renal function, and blood product requirements. METHODS Randomized, controlled, double-blind study of severely(More)
BACKGROUND Perioperative fluid therapy influences clinical outcomes following major surgery. Fluid preparations may be based on a simple non-buffered salt solution, such as normal saline, or may be modified with bicarbonate or bicarbonate precursor buffers, such as maleate, gluconate, lactate or acetate, to better reflect the human physiological state.(More)
Various hydroxyethyl starch (HES) preparations have been used for decades to augment blood volume. There has been concern recently regarding possible adverse outcomes when using HES in the intensive care setting, especially in patients with septic shock. However, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of HES preparations depend on their chemical(More)
Hemopure (hemoglobin glutamer-250 [bovine]; HBOC-201) is a hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carrier registered with the Medicines Control Council of South Africa. It is indicated for the treatment of adult patients who are acutely anemic, for the purpose of maintaining tissue oxygen delivery thus eliminating, delaying, or reducing the need for allogeneic red(More)
The pressor response to intubation is known to be exaggerated in patients with gestational proteinuric hypertension (GPH). The effect of pretreatment with lignocaine 1.5 mg kg-1, magnesium sulphate 40 mg kg-1 or alfentanil 10 micrograms kg-1 on this pressor response was studied in 69 patients with moderate to severe GPH. Systolic arterial pressure exceeded(More)
  • M F M James
  • 2010
Magnesium is a critical physiological ion, and magnesium deficiency might contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia, to impaired neonatal development and to metabolic problems extending into adult life. Pharmacologically, magnesium is a calcium antagonist with substantial vasodilator properties but without myocardial depression. Cardiac output usually(More)
The extent to which plasma endotoxin concentrations increased was measured in 89 randomly selected exhausted runners who required admission to the medical tent for treatment in the 1986 Comrades Marathon (89,4 km). Eighty-one per cent had concentrations above the upper limit of 0,1 ng/ml ('endotoxaemic'), including 2% above 1 ng/ml (the reported lethal(More)