Michael James Pope

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Experimentally, a productive infection with HIV-1 requires that virus be administered to T cells that are activated by mitogens. We describe a productive milieu for HIV-1 within the confines of normal skin that does not require standard stimuli. The milieu consists of dendritic cells and T cells that emigrate from skin and produce distinctive stable,(More)
P-glycoprotein (MDR-1) is a well-known transporter that mediates efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from the intracellular milieu and thereby contributes to drug resistance. MDR-1 also is expressed by nonmalignant cells, including leukocytes, but physiologic functions for MDR-1 are poorly defined. Using an initial screening assay that included >100 mAbs, we(More)
As potential targets for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and SIV), dendritic cells (DCs) likely play a significant role in the onset and spread of infection as well as in the induction of antiviral immunity. Using the SIV-macaque system to study the very early events in DC-virus interactions, we compared(More)
A procedure has been developed to isolate dendritic cells to a high degree of purity from fresh blood. Prior enrichment methods have relied upon an initial 1-2-d culture period. Purified fresh isolates lack the characteristic morphology, phenotype, and immunostimulatory function of dendritic cells. The purified cells have the appearance of medium sized(More)
Cells that are infected with HIV-1 were visualized at the mucosal surface of the nasopharyngeal and palatine tonsils in 14 specimens from patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of 200 to 900/microliter and 2- to 10-year histories of HIV-1 infection. Most of the cells with intracellular HIV-1 protein were small but multinucleated. The majority of these syncytia(More)
Earlier work has identified a cell population that replicates HIV-1 in the absence of standard T cell stimuli. The system consists of dendritic cells and memory T lymphocytes that emigrate from organ cultures of human skin and together support a productive infection with HIV-1. These emigrants resemble cells that can be found in mucous membranes and that(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) can influence HIV-1 and SIV pathogenesis and protective mechanisms at several levels. First, HIV-1 productively infects select populations of DCs in culture, particularly immature DCs derived from blood monocytes and skin (Langerhans cells). However, there exist only a few instances in which HIV-1- or SIV-infected DCs have been(More)
Dendritic cells [DCs] have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). When skin was used as a model for mucosae, the cutaneous DC-T cell milieu allowed the growth of HIV-1 and much of the newly produced virus could be detected in multinucleated DC-T cell syncytia. Such virus replication occurs irrespective of the(More)
Significant progress has been made in understanding the biology of heterosexual transmission of HIV by utilizing the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/rhesus monkey animal model. Our previous studies have shown that SIV-infected cells within the stratified squamous epithelium of the vagina have a dendritic morphology. However, the type of cell infected(More)
BACKGROUND Molecular characteristics of cancer vary between individuals. In future, most trials will require assessment of biomarkers to allocate patients into enriched populations in which targeted therapies are more likely to be effective. The MRC FOCUS3 trial is a feasibility study to assess key elements in the planning of such studies. PATIENTS AND(More)