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We have found that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) can protect fibroblasts from apoptosis induced by UV-B light. Antiapoptotic signalling by the IGF-I receptor depended on receptor kinase activity, as cells overexpressing kinase-defective receptor mutants could not be protected by IGF-I. Overexpression of a kinase-defective receptor which contained a(More)
A pathway by which calcium influx through voltage-sensitive calcium channels leads to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation has been characterized. In PC12 cells, membrane depolarization leading to calcium influx through L-type calcium channels activates the dual specificity MAPK kinase MEK1, which phosphorylates and activates MAPK. Calcium(More)
Substantial evidence from animal studies suggests that enhanced memory associated with emotional arousal results from an activation of beta-adrenergic stress hormone systems during and after an emotional experience. To examine this implication in human subjects, we investigated the effect of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol hydrochloride(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) is a 42 kd serine/threonine protein kinase whose enzymatic activity requires phosphorylation of both tyrosyl and threonyl residues. As a step in elucidating the mechanism(s) for activation of this enzyme, we have determined the sites of regulatory phosphorylation. Following proteolytic digestion of 32P-labeled(More)
Activation of early response genes by interferons (IFNs) requires tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins. It was found that the serine-threonine kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [specifically, the 42-kilodalton MAPK or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2)] interacted with the(More)
To investigate possible involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK1 and ERK2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) in somatic cell mitosis, we have used indirect immunofluorescence with a highly specific phospho-MAP kinase antibody and found that a portion of the active MAP kinase is localized at kinetochores, asters, and the midbody(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p42mapk and p44mapk are activated in cells stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and other agents. A principal pathway for MAP kinase (MAPK) activation by EGF consists of sequential activations of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sos, the guanosine triphosphate binding protein Ras, and the protein(More)
Signal transduction is controlled both by regulation of enzyme activation and by organization of enzymatic complexes with nonenzymatic adapters, scaffolds, and anchor proteins. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade is one of several evolutionarily conserved mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades important in the regulation of(More)
The Raf-1 protein kinase participates in transduction of mitogenic signals, but its mechanisms of activation are incompletely understood. Treatment of human Raf-1 purified from insect Sf9 cells co-expressing c-H-Ras and Src(Y527F) (in which phenylalanine replaces tyrosine at residue 527) with either serine-threonine or tyrosine phosphatases resulted in(More)