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A pathway by which calcium influx through voltage-sensitive calcium channels leads to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation has been characterized. In PC12 cells, membrane depolarization leading to calcium influx through L-type calcium channels activates the dual specificity MAPK kinase MEK1, which phosphorylates and activates MAPK. Calcium(More)
To investigate possible involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK1 and ERK2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) in somatic cell mitosis, we have used indirect immunofluorescence with a highly specific phospho-MAP kinase antibody and found that a portion of the active MAP kinase is localized at kinetochores, asters, and the midbody(More)
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activates the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, in diverse cell types. In this study, we demonstrate that uPA stimulates migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HT 1080 fibrosarcoma cells, and uPAR-overexpressing MCF-7 cells by a mechanism that depends on(More)
The signal pathways that control effector function in human natural killer (NK) cells are little known. In this study, we have identified the critical role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in NK lysis of tumor cells, and this pathway may involve the mobilization of granule components in NK cells upon interaction with sensitive tumor(More)
Activation of the Ras-MAPK signal transduction pathway is necessary for biological responses both to growth factors and ECM. Here, we provide evidence that phosphorylation of S298 of MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1) by p21-activated kinase (PAK) is a site of convergence for integrin and growth factor signaling. We find that adhesion to fibronectin induces(More)
Progression of prostate cancer ultimately results in a disease that is refractory to hormone ablation therapy but nevertheless continues to require the androgen receptor. Progression to hormone refractory disease is often correlated with overexpression of growth factors and receptors capable of establishing autocrine and/or paracrine growth-stimulatory(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) remains functionally important in the development and progression of prostate cancer even when the disease seems androgen ''independent.'' Because signal transduction by growth factor receptors increases in advanced prostate cancer and is capable of sensitizing the AR to androgen, there is considerable interest in determining the(More)
Constitutively activated signaling molecules are often the primary drivers of malignancy, and are favored targets for therapeutic intervention. However, the effectiveness of targeted inhibition of cell signaling can be blunted by compensatory signaling which generates adaptive resistance mechanisms and reduces therapeutic responses. Therefore, it is(More)
Cell-substrate adherence in cultures of chicken embryo fibroblasts was examined by determining the number of cells which could be detached from the culture dish by a stream of medium. Transformed cells were significantly less adherent than their normal counterparts. In cultures infected with a mutant of Rous sarcoma virus which is temperature-conditional(More)
We have examined the role of proteolytic activity in the genesis and maintenance of the transformed phenotype by growing cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts transfromed by Rous sarcoma virus either in medium containing plasminogen-free serum or in medium to which protease inhibitors were added. Alterations in morphology, adhesiveness, and hexose transport(More)