Michael J. Valenzuela

Learn More
BACKGROUND Behavioural brain reserve is a property of the central nervous system related to sustained and complex mental activity which can lead to differential expression of brain injury. Behavioural brain reserve has been assessed using autobiographical data such as education levels, occupational complexity and mentally stimulating lifestyle pursuits. So(More)
BACKGROUND Brain reserve is a property of the central nervous system related to complex mental activity which may mediate the course and clinical expression of brain injury. Since there is no instrument that comprehensively assesses complex mental activity through the lifespan, we developed and tested the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ) in a(More)
OBJECTIVES Epidemiological and preclinical studies suggest that mental activity levels may alter dementia risk. Clinical trials are now beginning to address the key issues of persistence of effect over extended follow-up and transfer of effect to nontrained domains. The aim of this report was to therefore systematically review results from clinical trials,(More)
BACKGROUND New effective interventions to attenuate age-related cognitive decline are a global priority. Computerized cognitive training (CCT) is believed to be safe and can be inexpensive, but neither its efficacy in enhancing cognitive performance in healthy older adults nor the impact of design factors on such efficacy has been systematically analyzed.(More)
Pollen presentation theory (PPT) allows for a re-examination of some classic themes in pollination biology. Here, we outline its implications in the context of beeand birdadapted species of Penstemon and Keckiella (Scrophulariaceae). PPT models the optimal schedule of pollen presentation, based on the frequency of visits by pollinators, and the capacities(More)
BACKGROUND Effective non-pharmacological cognitive interventions to prevent Alzheimer's dementia or slow its progression are an urgent international priority. The aim of this review was to evaluate cognitive training trials in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and evaluate the efficacy of training in memory strategies or cognitive exercises(More)
Converging lines of research indicate that complex mental activity is associated with reduced dementia risk. Thus, intense interest exists in whether different forms of cognitive exercise can help protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, there is considerable confusion in terminology that is hindering progress in the field. We therefore(More)
BACKGROUND A previous companion paper to this report (Valenzuela and Sachdev, Psychological Medicine 2006, 36, 441-454) suggests a link between behavioural brain reserve and incident dementia; however, the issues of covariate control and ascertainment bias were not directly addressed. Our aim was to quantitatively review an independent set of longitudinal(More)
Accumulating epidemiological evidence supports the notion of brain reserve, but there has been no investigation of neurobiological change associated with brief mental activation training in humans. Healthy older individuals were therefore investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in different brain regions before and after 5 weeks of focused(More)
BACKGROUND The frequency and clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging correlates of apathy in patients who have had a stroke are inadequately defined. METHOD A total of 167 consecutive patients admitted to the stroke units of two university hospitals after an ischaemic stroke and 109 controls received extensive medical, psychiatric and(More)