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OBJECTIVE This study was undertaken to assess the ability of a water container with a cover and a spout to prevent household contamination of water in a Malawian refugee camp. METHODS A randomized trial was conducted in a refugee population that had experienced repeated outbreaks of cholera and diarrhoea and where contamination of water in the home was(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the various survey methods used in Somalia between 1991 and early 1993 while assessing documentation of mortality and malnutrition rates and common causes of morbidity and mortality. DATA SOURCES Twenty-three population surveys were identified from the Center for Public Health Surveillance for Somalia, the United Nations Children's(More)
The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is classified by the World Bank as a low-income country under stress. Development partners have sought to utilize effective aid instruments to help countries classified in this way achieve the Millennium Development Goals; these aid instruments include sector-wide approaches (SWAps) that support decentralized(More)
Populations affected by armed conflict have experienced severe public health consequences mediated by population displacement, food scarcity, and the collapse of basic health services, giving rise to the term complex humanitarian emergencies. These public health effects have been most severe in underdeveloped countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.(More)
Between 23 August and 15 December 1990 an epidemic of cholera affected Mozambican refugees in Malawi causing 1931 cases (attack rate = 2.4%); 86% of patients had arrived in Malawi < 3 months before illness onset. There were 68 deaths (case-fatality rate = 3.5%); most deaths (63%) occurred within 24 h of hospital admission which may have indicated delayed(More)
In April-May 2001, a study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis E virus (HEV) among 426 persons 8-49 years of age randomly selected from two groups of rural villages in central Tibet. Group 1 villages were assessed in 1998 as having poor quality water sources; new water systems were then constructed prior to this study.(More)
BACKGROUND In January 1993, Nyamithuthu Camp in Malawi housed 64000 Mozambican refugees. Communicable diseases, primarily diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria and measles, contribute to substantially higher mortality rates in refugee populations compared to similar non-displaced populations. METHOD A systematic sample of 402 households in one portion of the camp(More)
OBJECTIVE To pilot the WHO guidelines on DOTS for tuberculosis (TB) among displaced people affected by conflict in Churachandpur District, Manipur State, north-east India, which has endured an HIV epidemic, injecting drug use, civil unrest, high levels of TB, and poor TB treatment and prevention services for many years. METHODS Prerequisites for TB(More)