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The classification of sleep disorders is necessary to discriminate between disorders and to facilitate an understanding of symptoms, etiology, and pathophysiology that allows for appropriate treatment. The earliest classification systems, largely organized according to major symptoms (insomnia, excessive sleepiness, and abnormal events that occur during(More)
A treatment of chronic insomnia is described that is based on the recognition that excessive time spent in bed is one of the important factors that perpetuates insomnia. Thirty-five patients, with a mean age of 46 years and a mean history of insomnia of 15.4 years, were treated initially by marked restriction of time available for sleep, followed by an(More)
This study was undertaken to determine whether the use of triazolam by narcoleptic patients leads to improvement of nighttime sleep or excessive sleepiness. Ten narcoleptic patients, 5 males and 5 females, with complaints of sleep disturbance and aged between 18 and 60 years, were assigned to a single-blind within-subject crossover-designed study comparing(More)
Nocturnal leg cramps are a frequent cause of sleep disturbance among the general population, especially among the elderly. These painful episodes can delay sleep onset and awaken the patient from sleep, as well as delay subsequent return to sleep. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. Although most cases of leg cramps are(More)
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) is an effective treatment for some patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). A major difficulty has been to select those patients who will have a good response to UPPP. Fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy with Müller Maneuver (FNMM) was applied in preoperative evaluation of patients with OSAS to identify those in whom(More)
Three diagnostic classifications for sleep disorders have been developed recently: the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV), and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10). No data have yet been published regarding the frequency of specific diagnoses(More)
The delayed sleep phase syndrome is characterized by difficulty in falling asleep at a socially acceptable time of night and an inability to be easily aroused in the morning. Most commonly encountered in adolescents, this condition can produce daytime sleepiness and poor school performance, and it can lead to behavioral problems. The clinical features of(More)